HML Preprints 2004
http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/6751
2015-03-11T23:03:39ZCapillary Break-up Rheometry of Low-Viscosity Elastic Fluids
http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/16533
Capillary Break-up Rheometry of Low-Viscosity Elastic Fluids
Rodd, Lucy E.; Scott, Timothy P.; Cooper-White, Justin J.; McKinley, Gareth H.
We investigate the dynamics of the capillary thinning and break-up process for low viscosity
elastic fluids such as dilute polymer solutions. Standard measurements of the evolution of the
midpoint diameter of the necking fluid filament are augmented by high speed digital video
images of the break up dynamics. We show that the successful operation of a capillary thinning
device is governed by three important time scales (which characterize the relative importance of
inertial, viscous and elastic processes), and also by two important length scales (which specify
the initial sample size and the total stretch imposed on the sample). By optimizing the ranges of these geometric parameters, we are able to measure characteristic time scales for tensile stress growth as small as 1 millisecond for a number of model dilute and semi-dilute solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in water and glycerin. If the aspect ratio of the sample is too small, or
the total axial stretch is too great, measurements are limited, respectively, by inertial oscillations of the liquid bridge or by the development of the well-known beads-on-a-string morphology which disrupt the formation of a uniform necking filament. By considering the magnitudes of the natural time scales associated with viscous flow, elastic stress growth and inertial oscillations it is possible to construct an “operability diagram” characterizing successful operation of a capillary break-up extensional rheometer. For Newtonian fluids, viscosities greater than approximately 70 mPa.s are required; however for dilute solutions of high molecular weight polymer the minimum viscosity is substantially lower due to the additional elastic stresses arising from molecular extension. For PEO of molecular weight 106 g/mol, it is possible to
measure relaxation times of order 1 ms in dilute polymer solutions of viscosity 2 – 10 mPa.s.
Submitted to Applied Rheology, August 2004
2004-11-01T13:19:56ZThe Inertio-Elastic Planar Entry Flow of Low-Viscosity Elastic Fluids in Micro-fabricated Geometries
http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/15964
The Inertio-Elastic Planar Entry Flow of Low-Viscosity Elastic Fluids in Micro-fabricated Geometries
Rodd, Lucy E.; Scott, Timothy P.; Boger, David V.; Cooper-White, Justin J.; McKinley, Gareth H.
The non-Newtonian flow of dilute aqueous polyethylene oxide (PEO) solutions through
microfabricated planar abrupt contraction-expansions is investigated. The contraction
geometries are fabricated from a high-resolution chrome mask and cross-linked PDMS
gels using the tools of soft-lithography. The small length scales and high deformation
rates in the contraction throat lead to significant extensional flow effects even with dilute polymer solutions having time constants on the order of milliseconds. The dimensionless
extra pressure drop across the contraction increases by more than 200% and is
accompanied by significant upstream vortex growth. Streak photography and videomicroscopy
using epifluorescent particles shows that the flow ultimately becomes
unstable and three-dimensional. The moderate Reynolds numbers (0.03 â‰¤ Re â‰¤ 44)
associated with these high Deborah number (0 â‰¤ De â‰¤ 600) microfluidic flows results in
the exploration of new regions of the Re-De parameter space in which the effects of both
elasticity and inertia can be observed. Understanding such interactions will be
increasingly important in microfluidic applications involving complex fluids and can best
be interpreted in terms of the elasticity number, El = De/Re, which is independent of the
flow kinematics and depends only on the fluid rheology and the characteristic size of the
device.
2004-12-17T16:43:12ZCorner Flows in Free Liquid Films
http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/10742
Corner Flows in Free Liquid Films
Stocker, Roman; Hosoi, A.E.
A lubrication-flow model for a free film in a corner is presented. The model, written in the hyperbolic coordinate system ξ = x² – y², Î· = 2xy, applies to films that are thin in the Î· direction. The lubrication approximation yields two coupled evolution equations for the film thickness and the velocity field which, to lowest order, describes plug flow in the hyperbolic coordinates. A free film in a corner evolving under surface tension and gravity is investigated. The rate of thinning of a free film is compared to that of a film evolving over a solid substrate. Viscous shear and normal stresses are both captured in the model and are computed for the entire flow domain. It is shown that normal stress dominates over shear stress in the far field, while shear stress dominates close to the corner.
2004-08-24T18:47:53ZPeeling, healing and bursting in a lubricated elastic sheet
http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/7623
Peeling, healing and bursting in a lubricated elastic sheet
Hosoi, A.E.; Mahadevan, L.
We consider the dynamics of an elastic sheet lubricated by the flow of a thin layer of fluid that separates it from a rigid wall. By considering long wavelength deformations of the sheet, we derive an evolution equation for its motion, accounting for the effects of elastic bending, viscous lubrication and body forces. We then analyze various steady and unsteady problems for the sheet such as peeling, healing, levitating and bursting using a combination of numerical simulation and dimensional analysis. On the macro-scale, we corroborate our theory with a simple experiment, and on the micro-scale, we analyze an oscillatory valve that can transform a continuous stream of fluid into a series of discrete pulses.
2004-01-01T00:00:00Z