Now showing items 244-263 of 337

    • Obstacles to global CO₂ trading : a familiar problem 

      Ellerman, A. Denny. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 1998-11)
      There are many obstacles to the development of an international CO₂ emissions trading system, but the biggest is a feature that is often assumed: the existence of a single national system. Once a national system is in ...
    • On the Correlation between Forcing and Climate Sensitivity 

      Sokolov, Andrei (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2010-08)
      The possible correlation between climate sensitivity and radiative forcing is studied using versions of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) model with different climate sensitivities. No such correlation was found ...
    • Over-Allocation or Abatement? A Preliminary Analysis of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme Based on the 2005 Emissions Data 

      Ellerman, A. Denny.; Buchner, Barbara. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2006-12)
      This paper provides an initial analysis of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) based on the installation-level data for verified emissions and allowance allocations in the first trading year. Those data, ...
    • Ozone effects on net primary production and carbon sequestration in the conterminous United States using a biogeochemistry model 

      Felzer, Benjamin Seth.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Wang, Chien.; Zhuang, Qianlai.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2002-11)
      The effects of air pollution on vegetation may provide an important control on the carbon cycle that has not yet been widely considered. Prolonged exposure to high levels of ozone, in particular, has been observed to inhibit ...
    • Parameterization of urban sub-grid scale processes in global atmospheric chemistry models 

      Calbó, Josep.; Pan, Wen Wei.; Webster, Mort David.; Prinn, Ronald G.; McRae, Gregory J. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 1997-07)
      We have derived a parameterization consisting of a set of analytical expressions that approximate the predictions by the CIT Urban Airshed Model for the net export to the environment (i.e., effective emissions) of several ...
    • Past and Future Effects of Ozone on Net Primary Production and Carbon Sequestration Using a Global Biogeochemical Model 

      Felzer, Benjamin Seth.; Reilly, John M.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Wang, Chien.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2003-10)
      Exposure of plants to ozone inhibits photosynthesis and therefore reduces vegetation production and carbon sequestration. Simulations with the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) for the historical period (1860-1995) show ...
    • Permafrost, Lakes, and Climate-Warming Methane Feedback: What is the Worst We Can Expect? 

      Gao, X.; Schlosser, C.A.; Sokolov, A.; Walter Anthony, K.; Zhuang, Q.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2012-05)
      Permafrost degradation is likely enhanced by climate warming. Subsequent landscape subsidence and hydrologic changes support expansion of lakes and wetlands. Their anaerobic environments can act as strong emission sources ...
    • Potential Climatic Impacts and Reliability of Very Large-Scale Wind Farms 

      Prinn, Ronald G.; Wang, Chien (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2009-06)
      Meeting future world energy needs while addressing climate change requires large-scale deployment of low or zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emission technologies such as wind energy. The widespread availability of wind power has ...
    • Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Future Land-use Chage 

      Kicklighter, D.W.; Gurgel, A.; Melillo, J.; Paltsev, S. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2012-03)
      The production of cellulosic biofuels may have a large influence on future land emissions of greenhouse gases. These effects will vary across space and time depending on land-use policies, trade, and variations in ...
    • Potential Land Use Implications of a Global Biofuels Industry 

      Gurgel, Angelo C.; Reilly, John M.; Paltsev, Sergey. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2008-03)
      In this paper we investigate the potential production and implications of a global biofuels industry. We develop alternative approaches to the introduction of land as an economic factor input, in value and physical terms, ...
    • The Potential Wind Power Resource in Australia: A New Perspective 

      Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, C. Adam (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2014-02)
      Australia is considered to have very good wind resources, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing. Wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account ...
    • Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs 

      Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 1998-12)
      Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...
    • Probabilistic Forecast for 21st Century Climate Based on Uncertainties in Emissions (without Policy) and Climate Parameters 

      Sokolov, Andrei P.; Stone, Peter H.; Forest, Chris Eliot; Prinn, Ronald G.; Sarofim, Marcus C.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2009-01)
      The MIT Integrated Global System Model is used to make probabilistic projections of climate change from 1861 to 2100. Since the model's first projections were published in 2003 substantial improvements have been made to ...
    • Probabilistic Projections of 21st Century Climate Change over Northern Eurasia 

      Monier, Erwan; Sokolov, Andrei; Schlosser, Adam; Scott, Jeffery; Gao, Xiang (MIT Joint Program, 2013-07-18)
      We present probabilistic projections of 21st century climate change over Northern Eurasia using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), an integrated assessment model that ...
    • Probabilistic projections of the future climate for the world and the continental USA 

      Sokolov, A.; Gao, X.; Paltsev, S.; Monier, E.; Chen, H.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2017-09)
      In this paper, we study possible impacts of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on the 21st century climate on the continental USA using the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework. Climate change ...
    • Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions 

      Saikawa, E.; Schlosser, C.A.; Prinn, R.G. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2011-09-01)
      Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and quantify soil nitrous oxide emissions, we expanded the Community Land Model with prognostic Carbon and Nitrogen ...
    • A Process-based Analysis of Methane Exchanges Between Alaskan Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere 

      Zhuang, Qianlai.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Prinn, Ronald G.; McGuire, A. David.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2003-11)
      We developed and used a new version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to study how rates of methane (CH4) emissions and consumption in Alaskan soils have changed over the past century in response to observed changes ...
    • The Prospects for Coal-To-Liquid Conversion: A General Equilibrium Analysis 

      Chen, Y.-H. Henry; Reilly, John M.; Paltsev, Sergey (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2011-05)
      We investigate the economics of coal-to-liquid (CTL) conversion, a polygeneration technology that produces liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity by coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process. CTL is more expensive ...
    • Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States and Japan: A General Equilibrium Analysis 

      Reilly, John M.; Paltsev, Sergey; Karplus, Valerie J. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2009-04)
      The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) may offer a potential near term, low carbon alternative to today's gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. A representative vehicle technology that runs on electricity in addition ...
    • Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk 

      Lickley, M.J.; Lin, N.; Jacoby, H.D. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2013-03)
      The 2005 hurricane season was particularly damaging to the United States, contributing to significant losses to energy infrastructure—much of it the result of flooding from storm surge during hurricanes Katrina and Rita. ...