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Water quality and business aspects of sachet-vended water in Tamale, Ghana

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dc.contributor.advisor Susan Murcott. en_US
dc.contributor.author Okioga, Teshamulwa (Teshamulwa Irene) en_US
dc.contributor.other Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering. en_US
dc.coverage.spatial f-gh--- en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2007-10-22T17:29:48Z
dc.date.available 2007-10-22T17:29:48Z
dc.date.copyright 2007 en_US
dc.date.issued 2007 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/39278
dc.description Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2007. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (leaves 119-126). en_US
dc.description.abstract Microbial water quality analyses were conducted on 15 samples of factory-produced sachet water and 15 samples of hand-tied sachet water, sold in Tamale, Ghana. The tests included the membrane filtration (MF) test using mColiBlue24® medium, 3MTM PetrifilmTM test, and Hydrogen Sulfide Presence Absence (P/A H2S) test. With the MF method, 1 factory-produced and 1 hand-tied sachet-water sample had E.coli counts of 5 CFU/100ml and 49 CFU/100ml respectively. Almost half (47%) of the factory-produced sachet-water samples had some total coliforms (range from 1 CFU/100ml to 115 CFU/100ml). All the 15 hand-tied sachet-water samples had total coliforms (range from 4 CFU/100ml to 2010 CFU/100ml). One sample recorded TNTC at a dilution factor of 10. The MF method showed little correlation with the 3MTM PetrifilmTM method (R=0. 16). With the 3MTM PetrifilmTM test method, none of the factory-produced sachet-water samples had E.coli and only one sample had total coliforms with 100 CFU/100ml. The hand-tied sachet-water sample with 49 E.coli CFU/100ml in the MF test, turned out to have 100 CFU/100ml in the 3MTM PetrifilmTM test. The MF test results were considered more reliable. en_US
dc.description.abstract (cont.) For the P/A H2S test, 7% of factory-produced sachet-water samples and 27% of the hand-tied sachet-water samples returned positive results. Overall, hand-tied sachet water was found to be two times more microbially contaminated than factory-produced sachet water. Turbidity tests done on the samples showed that 93% of the hand-tied sachet-water samples and 20% of factory-produced sachet-water samples had turbidities greater than 5 NTU - the limit set by the 1998 Ghana Standards for drinking water. Out of 30 random passer-byes in Tamale and neighboring Savelugu that were interviewed, all drank sachet-vended water, signifying its popularity in the areas. For 37%, sachet water formed the sole supply of drinking water, even at home! 70% drank more water when away from home, 20% the same amount at home and away from home, while 10% drank more water at home. Sachet water formed the main source of water away from home. Sachet-water vendors made 100% to 400% profit. en_US
dc.description.statementofresponsibility by Teshamulwa Okioga. en_US
dc.format.extent 168, [1] leaves en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher Massachusetts Institute of Technology en_US
dc.rights M.I.T. theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. See provided URL for inquiries about permission. en_US
dc.rights.uri http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/7582
dc.subject Civil and Environmental Engineering. en_US
dc.title Water quality and business aspects of sachet-vended water in Tamale, Ghana en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.description.degree M.Eng. en_US
dc.contributor.department Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering. en_US
dc.identifier.oclc 170978822 en_US


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