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A field-based study of alternative microbial indicator tests for drinking water quality in Northern Ghana

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dc.contributor.advisor Susan Murcott. en_US
dc.contributor.author O'Keefe, Samantha F en_US
dc.contributor.other Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Technology and Policy Program. en_US
dc.coverage.spatial f-gh--- en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2012-04-26T18:49:36Z
dc.date.available 2012-04-26T18:49:36Z
dc.date.copyright 2012 en_US
dc.date.issued 2012 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/70396
dc.description Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; and, (S.M. in Technology and Policy)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, Technology and Policy Program, 2012. en_US
dc.description Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (p. 81-87). en_US
dc.description.abstract Safe drinking water is essential for human survival, yet it is unavailable to over 1 billion of the world's people living in poverty (World Bank, 2009). The current methods used to identify drinking water sources are inadequate, with almost 40 percent of "safe" sources containing unsafe levels of microbial contamination (Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation, 2010). Direct water testing is therefore necessary in order to accurately assess the safety of drinking water sources. The goals of this thesis are as follows: (1) To confirm the accuracy of the 20ml hydrogen sulfide (H2S) test as a single presence/absence (P/A) indicator for fecal coliforms; (2) To establish the accuracy of as a single enumerative test for fecal coliforms; (3) To verify the accuracy of the 20 ml H2S test used in conjunction with Easygel® as an improved method of quantifying contamination as compared with the individual tests; (4) To further confirm the accuracy of the EC-Kit as an improved method of quantifying contamination as compared with the individual tests; and (5) To use the results of an informal behavioral household interviews, and a performance review of the Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) to provide context and policy recommendations to improve access to potable water in Northern Ghana. Fieldwork for this research was completed in January 2011 in and around Tamale, Ghana. The author was hosted by Pure Home Water (PWH) and supported by the MIT Civil and Environmental Engineering Department. Overall, the 20 ml H2S presence/absence test was confirmed to be highly accurate for all types of water sources in Northern Ghana, as was the EC-Kit. The Easygel® and the H2S test combination is recommended solely for use when testing improved water sources. Additionally, field observations and a review of current policies of the CWSA demonstrate significant shortcomings in the ability of the Agency to supply rural areas with safe drinking water. Recommendations for improvement include more strict regulations of the levels and nature of foreign investment in Ghana's water sector. en_US
dc.description.statementofresponsibility by Samantha F. O'Keefe. en_US
dc.format.extent 113 p. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher Massachusetts Institute of Technology en_US
dc.rights M.I.T. theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. See provided URL for inquiries about permission. en_US
dc.rights.uri http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/7582 en_US
dc.subject Civil and Environmental Engineering. en_US
dc.subject Engineering Systems Division. en_US
dc.subject Technology and Policy Program. en_US
dc.title A field-based study of alternative microbial indicator tests for drinking water quality in Northern Ghana en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.description.degree S.M.in Technology and Policy en_US
dc.description.degree S.M. en_US
dc.contributor.department Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering. en_US
dc.contributor.department Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Engineering Systems Division. en_US
dc.contributor.department Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Technology and Policy Program. en_US
dc.identifier.oclc 783834247 en_US


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