Universal Dependencies for Learner English
Author(s)Berzak, Yevgeni; Kenney, Jessica; Spadine, Carolyn; Wang, Jing Xian; Lam, Lucia; Mori, Keiko Sophie; Garza, Sebastian; Katz, Boris; ... Show more Show less
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We introduce the Treebank of Learner English (TLE), the first publicly available syntactic treebank for English as a Second Language (ESL). The TLE provides manually annotated POS tags and Universal Dependency (UD) trees for 5,124 sentences from the Cambridge First Certificate in English (FCE) corpus. The UD annotations are tied to a pre-existing error annotation of the FCE, whereby full syntactic analyses are provided for both the original and error corrected versions of each sentence. Further on, we delineate ESL annotation guidelines that allow for consistent syntactic treatment of ungrammatical English. Finally, we benchmark POS tagging and dependency parsing performance on the TLE dataset and measure the effect of grammatical errors on parsing accuracy. We envision the treebank to support a wide range of linguistic and computational research o n second language acquisition as well as automatic processing of ungrammatical language.
Center for Brains, Minds and Machines (CBMM), arXiv
CBMM Memo Series;052
Treebank of Learner English (TLE), English as Second Language (ESL), Universal Dependency (UD), Cambridge First Certificate in English (FCE)
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