Regularity and removal lemmas and their applications
Author(s)Lovász, László Miklós
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Mathematics.
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In this thesis, we analyze the regularity method pioneered by Szemerédi, and also discuss one of its prevalent applications, the removal lemma. First, we prove a new lower bound on the number of parts required in a version of Szemerédi's regularity lemma, determining the order of the tower height in that version up to a constant factor. This addresses a question of Gowers. Next, we turn to algorithms. We give a fast algorithmic Frieze-Kannan (weak) regularity lemma that improves on previous running times. We use this to give a substantially faster deterministic approximation algorithm for counting subgraphs. Previously, only an exponential dependence of the running time on the error parameter was known; we improve it to a polynomial dependence. We also revisit the problem of finding an algorithmic regularity lemma, giving approximation algorithms for some co-NP-complete problems. We show how to use the Frieze-Kannan regularity lemma to approximate the regularity of a pair of vertex sets. We also show how to quickly find, for each [epsilon]' > [epsilon], an [epsilon]'-regular partition with k parts if there exists an [epsilon]-regular partition with k parts. After studying algorithms, we turn to the arithmetic setting. Green proved an arithmetic regularity lemma, and used it to prove an arithmetic removal lemma. The bounds obtained, however, were tower-type, and Green posed the problem of improving the quantitative bounds on the arithmetic triangle removal lemma, and, in particular, asked whether a polynomial bound holds. The previous best known bound was tower-type with a logarithmic tower height. We solve Green's problem, proving an essentially tight bound for Green's arithmetic triangle removal lemma in Fn/p. Finally, we give a new proof of a regularity lemma for permutations, improving the previous tower-type bound on the number of parts to an exponential bound.
Thesis: Ph. D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, 2017.Cataloged from PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (pages 123-127).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Mathematics.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology