DeepVoting: A Robust and Explainable Deep Network for Semantic Part Detection under Partial Occlusion
Author(s)Zhang, Zhishuai; Xie, Cihang; Wang, Jianyu; Xie, Lingxi; Yuille, Alan L.
In this paper, we study the task of detecting semantic parts of an object, e.g., a wheel of a car, under partial occlusion. We propose that all models should be trained without seeing occlusions while being able to transfer the learned knowledge to deal with occlusions. This setting alleviates the diffi- culty in collecting an exponentially large dataset to cover occlusion patterns and is more essential. In this scenario, the proposal-based deep networks, like RCNN-series, often produce unsatisfactory re- sults, because both the proposal extraction and classification stages may be confused by the irrelevant occluders. To address this,  proposed a voting mechanism that combines multiple local visual cues to detect semantic parts. The semantic parts can still be detected even though some visual cues are missing due to occlusions. However, this method is manually-designed, thus is hard to be optimized in an end-to-end manner. In this paper, we present DeepVoting, which incorporates the robustness shown by  into a deep network, so that the whole pipeline can be jointly optimized. Specifically, it adds two layers after the intermediate features of a deep network, e.g., the pool-4 layer of VGGNet. The first layer extracts the evidence of local visual cues, and the second layer performs a voting mechanism by utilizing the spatial relationship between visual cues and semantic parts. We also propose an improved version DeepVoting+ by learning visual cues from context outside objects. In experiments, DeepVoting achieves significantly better performance than several baseline methods, including Faster-RCNN, for semantic part detection under occlusion. In addition, DeepVoting enjoys explainability as the detection results can be diagnosed via looking up the voting cues.
Center for Brains, Minds and Machines (CBMM)
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