Design and analysis of low-cost x-ray imaging system incorporating consumer camera imaging
Author(s)Abel, Logan B
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering.
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X-ray imaging is a core component of our modern medical diagnosis arsenal in combatting a broad range of disease. X-ray imaging allows medical professionals to see the internal structure and layout of the human body, and in this way allows for the visualization of unseen ailments. A current "disease of poverty" which is the target of this study is tuberculosis, a lung bacteria which is visible on x-ray imaging. X-ray imaging is a well known and used technology, yet x-ray imaging remains very expensive and unwieldy for use in less-developed regions of the world. Within the last three to four decades, the world has seen a massive explosion in consumer camera technology development, largely driven by circuit miniaturization, and this has led to cheaper and higher resolution cameras being produced. X-ray images themselves rely on a material to turn x-rays, the photons which pass through the person in medical imaging, into electrical signals which can be read by a computer. This collection of x-ray photons can be done through the coupling of a scintillating screen and a camera which images the scintillating screen to create an x-ray image. This study explores this particular method of x-ray imaging which is likely to be cheaper than existing methods of x-ray imaging, yet also likely yields images of poorer resolution and contrast distinction in x-ray images. The theoretical components necessary to setup such a system in the most efficient manner possible were analyzed, taking into consideration safety and finance constraints. The imaging capabilities of a Nikon D810 (f/1.4, 50 mm lens) and iPhone 5S (f/2.2 lens), higher and lower quality cameras respectively, were analyzed using three scintillating screens, the MCI Optonix DRZ High, Scintacor DRZ Medium, and Scintacor DRZ Ultrafine screens, to capture the x-rays produced from a 14 mA 100 kV x-ray tube. It was found that the Nikon D810 coupled with the MCI Optonix DRZ High Screen produced results similar in performance to current medical imaging, and the iPhone 5S images were too noisy to be conclusive. Further work should go into developing a more finalized and standalone product that can be tested in clinically important settings, as this study does provide the proof-of-concept framework for this to be possible.
Thesis: S.B., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2018.This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.Cataloged from student-submitted PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (pages 52-54).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Nuclear Science and Engineering.