Palladium reagents for bioconjugation
Author(s)Rojas, Anthony J. (Anthony Jose)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry.
Stephen L. Buchwald and Bradley L. Pentelute.
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physicochemical properties in comparison to their linear counterparts. Here we detail a method for a divergent macrocyclization of unprotected peptides by crosslinking two cysteine residues with bis-palladium organometallic reagents. These synthetic intermediates are prepared in a single step from commercially available aryl bis-halides. Two bioactive linear peptides with cysteine residues at i, i + 4 and i, i + 7 positions, respectively, were cyclised to introduce a diverse array of aryl and bi-aryl linkers. These two series of macrocyclic peptides displayed similar linker-dependent lipophilicity, phospholipid affinity, and unique volume of distributions. Additionally, one of the bioactive peptides showed target binding affinity that was predominantly affected by the length of the linker. Collectively, this divergent strategy allowed rapid and convenient access to various aryl linkers, enabling the systematic evaluation of the effect of appending unit on the medicinal properties of macrocyclic peptides. Chapter 2: We report the use of a sulfonated biarylphosphine ligand (sSPhos) to promote the chemoselective modification of cysteine containing proteins and peptides with palladium reagents in aqueous medium. The use of sSPhos allowed for the isolation of several air-stable and water-soluble mono- and bis-palladium reagents, which were used in an improved protocol for the rapid S-arylation of cysteines under benign and physiologically relevant conditions. The cosolvent-free aqueous conditions were applied to the conjugation of a variety of biomolecules with affinity tags, heterocycles, fluorophores, and functional handles. Additionally, bispalladium reagents were used to perform macrocyclization of peptides bearing two cysteine residues. Chapter 3: The synthesis of palladium oxidative addition complexes of unprotected peptides is described. Incorporation of 4-halophenylalanine into a peptide during solid phase peptide synthesis allows for subsequent oxidative addition at this position of the unprotected peptide upon treatment with a palladium precursor and suitable ligand. The resulting palladium-peptide complexes are solid, storable, water-soluble, and easily purified via high-performance liquid chromatography. These complexes react rapidly with thiols at low micromolar concentrations in an aqueous buffer, offering an efficient method for bioconjugation. Using this strategy, peptides can be rapidly functionalized with small molecules to prepare modified aryl thioether sidechains. Additionally, peptide-peptide and peptide-protein ligations are demonstrated under dilute aqueous conditions.
Thesis: Ph. D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, 2018.Cataloged from PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology