From Three to One: Integrating a High Performance Work Organization Process, Lean Production and Activity Based Costing Change Initiatives. Boeing Corporation, Wichita, Kansas, IAM, 2000.
In 1997, Boeing and IAM launched an HPWO after introducing lean production initiatives in 1994 and Activity Based Costing (ABC) in 1996. Management and union leaders wanted to empower the workforce and enhance the competitiveness of the operations. After a slow and difficult path of diffusion, they need to decide how to best integrate these separate improvement programs into a single initiative. Boeing's engineering culture needs to work with the pragmatic workforce in Wichita. Workers fear losing products and projects to other Boeing facilities and have concerns about leadership turnover and follow-through. The HPWO helped managers recognize the importance of unions. Still, all three initiatives need a broader base of support.