The day activity schedule approach to travel demand analysis
Author(s)Bowman, John L. (John Lawrence)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
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This study develops a model of a person's day activity schedule that can be used to forecast urban travel demand. It is motivated by the notion that travel outcomes are part of an activity scheduling decision, and uses discrete choice models to address the basic modeling problem-capturing decision interactions among the many choice dimensions of the immense activity schedule choice set. An integrated system of choice models represents a person's day activity schedule as an activity pattern and a set of tours. A pattern model identifies purposes, priorities and structure of the day's activities and travel. Conditional tour models describe timing, location and access mode of on-tour activities. The system captures trade-offs people consider, when faced with space and time constraints, among patterns that can include at-home and on-tour activities, multiple tours and trip chaining. It captures sensitivity of pattern choice to activity and travel conditions through a measure of expected tour utility arising from the tour models. When travel and activity conditions change, the relative attractiveness of patterns changes because expected tour utility changes differently for different patterns. An empirical implementation of the model system for Portland, Oregon, establishes the feasibility of specifying, estimating and using it for forecasting. Estimation results match a priori expectations of lifestyle effects on activity selection, including those of (a) household structure and role, such as for females with children, (b) capabilities, such as income, and (c) activity commitments, such as usual work levels.(cont.) They also confirm the significance of activity and travel accessibility in pattern choice. Application of the model with road pricing and other policies demonstrates its lifestyle effects and how it captures pattern shifting-with accompanying travel changes-that goes undetected by more narrowly focused trip-based and tour-based systems. Although the model has not yet been validated in before-and-after prediction studies, this study gives strong evidence of its behavioral soundness, current practicality, potential to generate cost-effective predictions superior to those of the best existing systems, and potential for enhanced implementations as computing technology advances.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1998.Includes bibliographical references (p. 181-184) and index.This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Civil and Environmental Engineering.