Edge-defined film-fed growth of single-crystal piezoelectrics
Author(s)Nunes, Benjamin P. (Benjamin Paul), 1976-
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering.
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Many transducer technologies would benefit tremendously from the development of shaped, oriented single-crystals, of a high-strain, piezoelectric material. Recently, unusually high electrostrictive and piezoelectric actuation has been observed in polycrystals and flux-grown <100> single-crystals of ... Using seeded, Edgedefined Film-fed Growth (EFG) and the related Stepanov Technique (ST), low-hysteresis, highstrain, <100> and <111> oriented, single-crystals of BNBZT can be grown in rod and fiber form, with direct applications in active fiber composites and related devices. For this work, <100> and <111> oriented, single-crystal rods and fibers were grown via ST and EFG. Fibers, 260-700[mu]m in diameter and over 1.0 meter long, were grown using a custom built EFG machine and a capillary-shaper; rods, 2-3mm in diameter, up to 110mm long were grown using a floating-shaper. In all cases, strontium titanate (STO) was found to be an effective seed crystal. <111> oriented tetragonal crystals generated low hysteresis actuation consistent with a polarization rotation mechanism , but with only modest strains: ... <100> oriented tetragonal BNBZT generated high strains up to ... with hysteresis consistent with 90° domain switching. Electromechanical actuation and crystal structure in this system appear to be strongly affected by deviations from stoichiometry (B-site vacancies). Barium segregation and bismuth vaporization can also compromise electromechanical performance. Hypotheses are posed to explain the low actuation seen from <111> oriented ferroelectrics, and the effects of cation deficiencies on phase-stability. Cracks, pores, and other growth challenges encountered in ST and EFG growth of BNBZT are described.
Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, 2001.Includes bibliographical references (leaves 97-99).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Materials Science and Engineering.