Visco-Elasto-Capillary Thinning and Break-Up of Complex Fluids
Author(s)McKinley, Gareth H.
The progressive break-up of an initially stable fluid column or thread into a number of smaller droplets is an important dynamical process that impacts many commercial operations from spraying and atomization of fertilizers and pesticides, to paint application, roll-coating of adhesives and food processing operations such as container- and bottle-filling. The progressive thinning of a fluid filament is driven by capillarity and resisted by inertia, viscosity and additional stresses resulting from the extensional deformation of the fluid microstructure within the thread. In many processes of interest the fluid undergoing break-up is non-Newtonian and may contain dissolved polymer, suspended particles, surfactants or other microstructural constituents. In such cases the transient extensional viscosity of the fluid plays an important role in controlling the dynamics of break-up. The intimate connection between the degree of strain-hardening that develops during free extensional flow and the dynamical evolution in the profile of a thin fluid thread is also manifested in heuristic concepts such as âspinnability’, âtackiness’ and âstringiness’. In this review we survey recent experimental and theoretical developments in the field of capillarydriven thinning and break-up with a special focus on how quantitative measurements of the thinning and rupture processes can be used to quantify the material properties of the fluid. As a result of the absence of external forcing the dynamics of the necking process are often self-similar and observations of this âself-thinning’ can be used to extract qualitative, and even quantitative, measures of the transient extensional viscosity of a complex fluid.
Submitted to Annual Rheology Reviews, 2005.
Jet breakup, Necking, Capillary thinning, Extensional rheology, Drop formation
The following license files are associated with this item: