Determining the removal effectiveness of flame retardants from drinking water treatment processes
Author(s)Lin, Joseph C. (Joseph Chris), 1981-
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
Peter Shanahan and Philip M. Gschwend.
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Low concentrations of xenobiotic chemicals have recently become a concern in the surface water environment. The concern expands to drinking water treatment processes, and whether or not they remove these chemicals while going through the treatment plant. In this study, the concentrations of organophosphoric acid triester flame retardants tributyl phosphate, tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and ethanol, 2-butoxy-, phosphate (3:1) were measured after major treatment processes at the Chattahoochee Drinking Water Plant in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The findings indicated significant removal of all three organophosphate triesters after the pre-treatment chemical addition of sodium hypochlorite. The interaction of sodium hypochlorite and organophosphate triesters, through oxidation, was suspected to be the reason for the removal. Second, the concentrations of tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate after the filtration stage and at the clearwell were much greater than values after the sedimentation stage, and were well above the concentration measured at the intake. Exposure to the chemicals within the treatment plant was the chief potential reason for the heightened concentrations.
Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2004.Includes bibliographical references (p. 52-55).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Civil and Environmental Engineering.