The role of mismatch repair in mediating cellular sensitivity to cisplatin : the Escherichia coli methyl-directed repair paradigm
Author(s)Robbins, Jennifer L
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Biological Engineering Division.
John M. Essigmann.
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The anticancer drug cisplatin is in widespread use but its mechanism of action is only poorly understood. Moreover, human cancers acquire resistance to the drug, which limits its clinical utility. A paradox in the field is how loss of mismatch DNA repair leads to clinical resistance to this widely used drug. The phenomenon of cisplatin tolerance in mismatch repair deficient cells was initially discovered in E. coli, where methylation deficient dam mutants show high sensitivity to cisplatin and dam mutants with an additional mutation in either of the mismatch repair genes mutS or mutL show near wildtype levels of resistance. A prevalent explanation for this observation is the abortive repair model, which proposes that in dam mutants, where the strand discrimination signal is lost, mismatch repair attempts futile cycles of repair opposite cisplatin-DNA adducts. Previous findings have supported this model to the extent that MutS, the E. coli mismatch recognition protein, specifically recognizes DNA modified with cisplatin. However it has recently been shown that MutS binding to cisplatin adducts may contribute to toxicity by instead preventing the recombinational repair of a cisplatin-modified substrate, and we have previously shown that recombination is an essential mechanism for tolerating cisplatin damage.(cont.) In the present study, we examined the global transcriptional responses of wildtype, dam, dam mutS, and mutS mutant E. coli after treatment with a toxic dose of cisplatin. We also determined any dose-response at the transcriptional level of several SOS response genes and other genes involved in DNA repair by real time RT-PCR. Furthermore, we performed single-cell electrophoresis in order to determine the effect of mismatch repair on the level of double-strand break formation in cisplatin-treated cells. Our results show that Dam-deficient strains exhibit unique gene regulation that may be due to mismatch-repair induced DNA damage in the absence of adenine methylation. In addition, cisplatin treatment induces double-strand break formation and the SOS response in a dose-dependent manner, and both break formation and the SOS response are greatest in the hypersensitive dam mutant strain. The higher level of cisplatin-induced double-strand breaks in the dam mutant may be dependent on functional mismatch repair.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biological Engineering Division, 2006.Includes bibliographical references (v. 2, leaves 195-258).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Biological Engineering Division.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Biological Engineering Division.