Now showing items 46-65 of 329

    • Climate Change Taxes and Energy Efficiency in Japan 

      Kasahara, Satoru.; Paltsev, Sergey.; Reilly, John M.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Ellerman, A. Denny. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2005-05)
      In 2003 Japan proposed a Climate Change Tax to reduce its CO2 emissions to the level required by the Kyoto Protocol. If implemented, the tax would be levied on fossil fuel use and the revenue distributed to several sectors ...
    • Climate Change, Mortality, and Adaptation: Evidence from Annual Fluctuations in Weather in the U.S. 

      Deschenes, Olivier; Greenstone, Michael (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2007-08)
      This paper produces the first large-scale estimates of the U.S. health related welfare costs due to climate change. Using the presumably random year-to-year variation in temperature and two state of the art climate models, ...
    • Climate Co-benefits of Tighter SO2 and NOx Regulations in China 

      Nam, Kyung-Min; Waugh, Caleb J.; Paltsev, Sergey; Reilly, John M.; Karplus, Valerie J. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2012-10-01)
      Air pollution has been recognized as a significant problem in China. In its Twelfth Five Year Plan (FYP), China proposes to reduce SO2 and NOx emissions significantly, and here we investigate the cost of achieving those ...
    • Climate Prediction: The Limits of Ocean Models 

      Stone, Peter H. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2004-02)
      We identify three major areas of ignorance which limit predictability in current ocean GCMs. One is the very crude representation of subgrid-scale mixing processes. These processes are parameterized with coefficients whose ...
    • Climate Stabilization at 2°C and Net Zero Carbon Emissions 

      Sokolov, A.; Paltsev, S.; Chen, H.; Haigh, M.; Prinn, R.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2017-03)
      The goal to stabilize global average surface temperature at lower than 2°C above pre-industrial level has been extensively discussed in climate negotiations. A number of publications state that achieving this goal will ...
    • Climatology and Trends in the Forcing of the Stratospheric Ozone Transport 

      Monier, Erwan; Weare, Bryan C. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2011-01)
      A thorough analysis of the ozone transport was carried out using the Transformed-Mean Eulerian (TEM) tracer transport equation and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re- Analysis (ERA-40). In ...
    • Climatology and Trends in the Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal-Mean Flow 

      Monier, Erwan; Weare, Bryan C. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2011-01)
      The momentum budget of the Transformed Eulerian-Mean (TEM) equation is calculated using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40). This study outlines the considerable contribution ...
    • CLM-AG: An Agriculture Module for the Community Land Model version 3.5 

      Gueneau, Arthur; Schlosser, C. Adam; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Gao, Xiang; Monier, Erwan (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2012-09)
      It is estimated that 40% of all crops grown in the world today are grown using irrigation. As a consequence, shifting precipitation patterns due to climate change are viewed as a major threat to food security. This report ...
    • The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach 

      Caron, J.; Metcalf, G.; Reilly, J. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2014-08)
      We improve on existing estimates of the carbon dioxide (CO2) content of consumption across regions of the United States. Using a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) framework, we estimate the direct and indirect CO2 emissions ...
    • Combined effects of anthropogenic emissions and resultant climatic changes on atmospheric OH 

      Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 1998-04)
      Using a coupled global atmospheric chemistry and climate model we have predicted the evolution of tropospheric concentrations of chemical species along with climate parameters, based on a set of economic model predictions ...
    • Combining a New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: Energy and Economic Impact in the United States 

      Karplus, V.J.; Paltsev, S.; Babiker, M.; Reilly, J.M. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2012-05)
      The United States has adopted fuel economy standards that require increases in the on-road efficiency of new passenger vehicles, with the goal of reducing petroleum use, as well as (more recently) greenhouse gas (GHG) ...
    • Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis 

      Morris, Jennifer; Reilly, John M.; Paltsev, Sergey (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2010-07)
      Many efforts to address greenhouse gas emissions combine a cap-and-trade system with other measures such as a renewable portfolio standard. In this paper we use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, the MIT Emissions ...
    • Combining Price and Quantity Controls under Partitioned Environmental Regulation 

      Abrell, J.; Rausch, S. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2016-07)
      This paper analyzes hybrid emissions trading systems (ETS) under partitioned environmental regulation when firms’ abatement costs and future emissions are uncertain. We show that hybrid policies that introduce bounds on ...
    • Comparing greenhouse gasses 

      Reilly, John M.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Mayer, Monika. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2001-07)
      Controlling multiple substances that jointly contribute to climate warming requires some method to compare the effects of the different gases because the physical properties (radiative effects, and persistence in the ...
    • A comparison of the behavior of different AOGCMs in transient climate change experiments 

      Sokolov, Andrei P.; Forest, Chris Eliot.; Stone, Peter H. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2001-12)
      The transient response of both surface air temperature and deep ocean temperature to an increasing external forcing strongly depends on climate sensitivity and the rate of the heat mixing into the deep ocean, estimates for ...
    • Consequences of Considering Carbon/Nitrogen Interactions on the Feedbacks between Climate and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle 

      Sokolov, Andrei P.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Felzer, Benjamin; Schlosser, C. Adam; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2007-06)
      A number of observational studies indicate that carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems in a world with an atmosphere richer in carbon dioxide and a warmer climate depends on the interactions between the carbon and ...
    • Constraining Climate Model Parameters from Observed 20th Century Changes 

      Forest, Chris Eliot; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2008-04)
      We present revised probability density functions for climate model parameters (effective climate sensitivity, the rate of deep-ocean heat uptake, and the strength of the net aerosol forcing) that are based on climate change ...
    • Constraining climate model properties using optimal fingerprint detection methods 

      Forest, Chris Eliot.; Allen, Myles R.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Stone, Peter H. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2000-05)
      We present a method for constraining key properties of the climate system that are important for climate prediction (climate sensitivity and rate of heat penetration into the deep ocean) by comparing a model's response to ...
    • Constraining uncertainties in climate models using climate change detection techniques 

      Forest, Chris Eliot.; Allen, Myles R.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 1999-04)
      Different atmosphere-ocean general circulation models produce significantly different projections of climate change in response to increases in greenhouse gases and aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere. The main reasons ...
    • Consumption-Based Adjustment of China's Emissions-Intensity Targets: An Analysis of its Potential Economic Effects 

      Springmann, M.; Zhang, D.; Karplus, V.J. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2013-03)
      China’s Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015) aims to achieve a national carbon intensity reduction of 17% through differentiated targets at the provincial level. Allocating the national target among China’s provinces is ...