Now showing items 155-174 of 329

    • Health Damages from Air Pollution in China 

      Matus, Kira; Nam, Kyung-Min; Selin, Noelle E.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Reilly, John M.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2011-03)
      In China, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in substantial adverse health impacts for its large and rapidly growing urban population. An expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA), ...
    • Health Damages from Air Pollution in China 

      Matus, Kira; Nam, Kyung-Min; Selin, Noelle E.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Reilly, John M.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2011-03)
      In China, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in substantial adverse health impacts for its large and rapidly growing urban population. An expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA), ...
    • Heavier Crude, Changing Demand for Petroleum Fuels, Regional Climate Policy, and the Location of Upgrading Capacity: 

      Reilly, John; Paltsev, Sergey; Choumert, Frederic (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2007-04)
      The crude slate is likely to become heavier in the future with greater reliance on bitumens, tar sands, heavy oils, and eventually possibly shale oil. Under standard refining processes these crude oil sources produce a ...
    • How to think about human influence on climate 

      Forest, Chris Eliot.; Stone, Peter H.; Jacoby, Henry D. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2000-10)
      We present a pedagogical paper on the detection of climate change and its attribution to anthropogenic influences. We attempt to separate the key thought processes and tools that are used when making qualitative statements ...
    • The Impact of Advanced Biofuels on Aviation Emissions and Operations in the U.S. 

      Winchester, N.; Malina, R.; Staples, M.D.; Barrett, S.R.H. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2015-02)
      We analyze the economic and emissions impacts on U.S. commercial aviation of the Federal Aviation Administration’s renewable jet fuel goal when met using advanced fermentation (AF) fuel from perennial grasses. These fuels ...
    • The Impact of Border Carbon Adjustments under Alternative Producer Responses 

      Winchester, Niven (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2011-02)
      Border carbon adjustments (BCAs) have been proposed to address leakage and competitiveness concerns. In traditional assessments, firms regard BCAs as output taxes rather than implicit emissions taxes. Using a stylized ...
    • Impact of Canopy Representations on Regional Modeling of Evapotranspiration using the WRF-ACASA Coupled Model 

      Xu, L.; Pyles, R.D.; Paw U, K.T.; Snyder, R.; Monier, E.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2015-12)
      In this study, we couple the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) with the Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA), a high complexity land surface model, to investigate the impact of canopy representation ...
    • The Impact of Climate Policy on Carbon Capture and Storage Deployment in China 

      Zhang, X.; Qi, T.; Zhang, X. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2015-12)
      Carbon capture and storage (CCS) from coal combustion is widely viewed as an important approach for China’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emission mitigation, but the pace of its development is still fairly slow. In addition to the ...
    • The Impact of Climate Policy on U.S. Aviation 

      Winchester, Niven; Wollersheim, C.; Clewlow, R.; Jost, N.C.; Paltsev, Sergey; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2011-04)
      We evaluate the impact of an economy-wide cap-and-trade policy on U.S. aviation taking the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (H.R.2454) as a representative example. We use an economywide model to estimate the ...
    • The Impact of Coordinated Policies on Air Pollution Emissions from Road Transportation in China 

      Kishimoto, P.N.; Karplus, V.J.; Zhong, M.; Saikawa, E.; Zhang, X.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2016-07)
      Improving air quality across mainland China is an urgent policy challenge. While much of the problem is linked to China’s broader reliance on coal and other fossil fuels across the energy system, road transportation is an ...
    • Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model 

      Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 1998-04)
      The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...
    • The Impact of Oil Prices on Bioenergy, Emissions and Land Use 

      Winchester, N.; Ledvina, K. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2016-10)
      We evaluate how alternative future oil prices will influence the penetration of biofuels, energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, land use and other outcomes. Our analysis employs a global economy wide model and ...
    • Impact of Sulfur and Carbonaceous Emissions from International Shipping on Aerosol Distributions and Direct Radiative Forcing 

      Wang, Chien.; Kim, Dongchul. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2008-04)
      We describe in this report an effort using the MIT/NCAR three-dimensional aerosol-climate model to study the impact of ship emissions on chemical composition and radiative forcing of aerosols. Our results indicate that ...
    • The Impact of Water Scarcity on Food, Bioenergy and Deforestation 

      Winchester, N.; Ledvina, K.; Strzepek, K.; Reilly, J.M. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2016-07)
      We evaluate the impact of explicitly representing irrigated land and water scarcity in an economy-wide model on food prices, bioenergy production and deforestation both with and without a global carbon policy. The analysis ...
    • Impacts of CO2 Mandates for New Cars in the European Union 

      Paltsev, S.; Chen, Y.-H.H.; Karplus, V.; Kishimoto, P.; Reilly, J. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2015-05)
      CO2 emissions mandates for new light-duty passenger vehicles have recently been adopted in the European Union (EU), which require steady reductions to 95 g CO2/km in 2021. Using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, ...
    • Impacts of Land Use and Biofuels Policy on Climate: Temperature and Localized Impacts 

      Hallgren, Willow; Schlosser, Adam; Monier, Erwan (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2012-08-06)
      The impact on climate of future land use and energy policy scenarios is explored using two landuse frameworks: (i) Pure Cost Conversion Response (PCCR), or 'extensification', where the price of land is the only constraint ...
    • Implementation of a Cloud Radiative Adjustment Method to Change the Climate Sensitivity of CAM3 

      Sokolov, Andrei P.; Monier, Erwan (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2011-08)
      Conducting probabilistic climate projections with a particular climate model requires the ability to vary the model’s characteristics, such as its climate sensitivity. In this study, we implement and validate a method to ...
    • Implications of Climate Science for Policy 

      Jacoby, H.D. (MIT Joint Program, 2013-07-18)
      Climate change presents the greatest challenge ever faced by our domestic and international institutions, and a great deal of the difficulty lies in the science of the issue. Because human influence on global climate differs ...
    • Incentive-based approaches for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions : issues and prospects for India 

      Gupta, Shreekant. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2002-06)
      As a consequence of the flexibility mechanisms incorporated in the Kyoto Protocol, incentive-based policies such as emissions trading and the clean development mechanism are being widely discussed in the context of greenhouse ...
    • Induced technical change and the cost of climate policy 

      Sue Wing, Ian. (2003-09)
      This paper investigates the potential for a carbon tax to induce R&D, and for the consequent induced technical change (ITC) to lower the macroeconomic cost of abating carbon emissions. ITC is modelled within a general ...