Now showing items 273-292 of 329

    • The safety valve and climate policy 

      Jacoby, Henry D.; Ellerman, A. Denny. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2002-02)
      In discussions of a cap-and-trade system for implementation of Kyoto Protocol-type quantity targets, a "safety valve" was proposed where, by government sales of emissions permits at a fixed price, the marginal cost of the ...
    • Same science, differing policies : the saga of global climate change 

      Skolnikoff, Eugene B. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 1997-08)
      This paper provides a comparative analysis of the economic and political interests influencing the progress of climate negotiation. The primary focus is on the U.S., France, Germany, U.K., Belgium, Netherlands, and the ...
    • Scaling Compliance with Coverage? Firm-level Performance in China’s Industrial Energy Conservation Program 

      Karplus, V.J.; Shen, X.; Zhang, D. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2016-10)
      Industrial energy conservation programs in China form a cornerstone of China’s energy and environmental management efforts, engaging thousands of major energy-using enterprises, and targeting hundreds of million tons of ...
    • Scenarios of Global Change: Integrated Assessment of Climate Impacts 

      Paltsev, S.; Sokolov, A.; Chen, H.; Gao, X.; Schlosser, A.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2016-02)
      Using the MIT Integrated Global System Modeling (IGSM) framework, we assess the climate impacts of emission scenarios exhibiting global mean surface temperatures ranging between 2.4°C and 4.3°C above pre-industrial by 2100. ...
    • A Self-Consistent Method to Assess Air Quality Co-Benefits from US Climate Policies 

      Saari, R.; Selin, N.E.; Rausch, S.; Thompson, T.M. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2014-04)
      Air quality co-benefits can potentially reduce the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. However, while many studies of the cost of greenhouse gas mitigation model the full macroeconomic welfare impacts, most studies of air ...
    • A semi-empirical representation of the temporal variation of total greenhouse gas levels expressed as equivalent levels of carbon dioxide 

      Cunnold, Derek; Prinn, Ronald G.; Huang, Jin; Wang, Ray (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2009-06)
      In order to examine the underlying longer-term trends in greenhouse gases, that are driven for example by anthropogenic emissions or climate change, it is useful to remove the recurring effects of natural cycles and ...
    • Sensitivities of deep-ocean heat uptake and heat content to surface fluxes and subgrid-scale parameters in an ocean GCM with idealized geometry 

      Huang, Boyin.; Stone, Peter H.; Hill, Christopher. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2002-09)
      Sensitivities of the net heat flux into the deep-ocean (Qnet) and of the deep-ocean heat content (DOC) below 700 m are studied using an ocean general circulation model and its adjoint. Both are found to have very similar ...
    • Sensitivity of Climate Change Projections to Uncertainties in the Estimates of Observed Changes in Deep-Ocean Heat Content 

      Sokolov, Andrei P.; Forest, Chris Eliot; Stone, Peter H. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2008-11)
      The MIT 2D climate model is used to make probabilistic projections for changes in global mean surface temperature and for thermosteric sea level rise under a variety of forcing scenarios. The uncertainties in climate ...
    • Sensitivity of Climate to Diapycnal Diffusivity: Part I. Equilibrium State; Part II. Global Warming Scenario 

      Dalan, Fabio.; Stone, Peter H.; Kamenkovich, Igor V.; Scott, Jeffery.; Sokolov, Andrei P. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2004-05)
      Part I: The diapycnal diffusivity in the ocean is one of the least known parameters in current climate models. Measurements of this diffusivity are sparse and insufficient for compiling a global map. Inferences from inverse ...
    • Sequential climate decisions under uncertainty : an integrated framework 

      Valverde, L. James, 1965-; Jacoby, Henry D.; Kaufman, Gordon M. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 1998-09)
      In this paper, we present an integrated framework for structuring and evaluating sequential greenhouse gas abatement policies under uncertainty. The analysis integrates information concerning the magnitude, timing, and ...
    • Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions 

      O'Sullivan, Francis; Paltsev, Sergey (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2012-11)
      Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...
    • Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions 

      Jacoby, Henry D.; Babiker, Mustafa M.H.; Paltsev, Sergey; Reilly, John M. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2008-11)
      The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...
    • Simulating the Spatial Distribution of Population and Emissions to 2100 

      Asadoorian, Malcolm O. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2005-05)
      Urbanization and economic development have important implications for many environmental processes including global climate change. Although there is evidence that urbanization depends endogenously on economic variables, ...
    • Specifying Parameters in Computable General Equilibrium Models using Optimal Fingerprint Detection Methods 

      Koesler, S. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2015-02)
      The specification of parameters is a crucial task in the development of economic models. The objective of this paper is to improve the standard parameter specification of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. On ...
    • Stabilization and Global Climate Policy 

      Sarofim, Marcus C.; Forest, Chris Eliot.; Reiner, David M.; Reilly, John M. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2004-07)
      Academic and political debates over long-run climate policy often invoke “stabilization” of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), but only rarely are non-CO2 greenhouse gases addressed explicitly. Even ...
    • Statistical Emulators of Maize, Rice, Soybean and Wheat Yields from Global Gridded Crop Models 

      Blanc, Elodie (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2016-05-09)
      This study provides statistical emulators of crop yields based on global gridded crop model simulations from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project Fast Track project. The ensemble of simulations is used ...
    • A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions 

      Prinn, Ronald G.; Heimbach, P.; Rigby, Matthew; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Melillo, Jerry M.; e.a. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2011-06)
      With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...
    • A study of the effects of natural fertility, weather and productive inputs in Chinese agriculture 

      Eckaus, Richard S.; Tso, Katherine Kit-Yan. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 1999-07)
      This paper presents an investigation of the relations in China between farm output, the natural fertility of agricultural land, and the use of anthropogenic farm inputs. The methodology is presented as a potential increment ...
    • Supplementarity : an invitation to monopsony? 

      Ellerman, A. Denny.; Sue Wing, Ian. (MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, 2000-04)
      Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol allows Annex B parties to meet their commitments by trading greenhouse gas emissions reductions "supplemental" to domestic emissions control. We demonstrate that implementing supplementarity ...
    • Synergy between Pollution and Carbon Emissions Control: Comparing China and the U.S. 

      Nam, Kyung-Min; Waugh, Caleb J.; Paltsev, Sergey; Reilly, John M.; Karplus, V.J. (MIT Joint Program, 2013-10)
      We estimate the potential synergy between pollution and climate control in the U.S. and China, summarizing the results as emissions cross-elasticities of control. We set a range of NOx and SO2 targets, and record the ...