Linear to Non-linear Rheology of Wheat Flour Dough
Author(s)Ng, Trevor S.K.; McKinley, Gareth H.; Padmanabhan, Mahesh
We provide an overview of transient extensional rheometry techniques for wheat flour doughs in which the deformation and material response is well defined. The behavior of a range of model doughs was explored with a Filament Stretching Extensional Rheometer (FISER). The measurements were also compared to data obtained with a new wind-up extensional rheometer; the SER universal testing platform. A simple empirical constitutive equation, which allows characterization of the experimental results with a small number of parameters, is presented to describe the resulting measurements. To characterize the relaxation modulus of the doughs, small amplitude oscillatory tests were performed on samples that have been shear-mixed in a mixograph for varying lengths of time. The linear viscoelastic properties were found to exhibit a broad power-law dependence on the imposed oscillatory frequency that is very reminiscent of that exhibited by a critical gel. The critical gel model of Winter-Chambon [1, 2] was used as the basis for constructing a non-linear constitutive equation for the material stress by combining the relaxation modulus for the critical gel with a Lodge rubber-like liquid form for the kinematics. Transient uniaxial extensional data recorded from the FISER and SER instruments were then compared to the predictions of the constitutive equation. The model captures the initial power-law response and subsequent strain-hardening; however additional physics is required to describe the rheological phenomena at very large Hencky strains, including finite extensibility effects and filament rupture in extensional flows.
Submitted to Appl. Rheol.
Extensional rheology, Filament stretching, Strain-hardening, Damping function, Gel equation
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