Three dimensional integration technology using copper wafer bonding
Author(s)Fan, Andy, 1976-
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.
L. Rafael Reif and Akintunde Ibitayo Akinwande.
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With 3-D integration, the added vertical component could theoretically increase the device density per footprint ratio of a given chip by n-fold, provide a means of heterogeneous integration of devices fabricated from different technologies, and reduce the global RC delay to a non-factor in circuits by using smarter 3-D CAD tools for optimizing device placement. This thesis work will focus primarily on the development and realization of a viable 3-D flow fabricated within MTL. Specifically, the presentation will attempt on answering these questions in regards to 3-D: 1. What enabling technologies were needed for 3-D to work ? 2. Does it really work ? 3. Will the "3-D heat dissipation problem" prevent it from working ? 4. What applications is it good for ? Referring to the first item, a viable 3-D integration flow has been developed on both the wafer-and-die-level, and the enabling technologies were the following: Low temperature Cu-Cu thermocompression bonding, an aluminum-Cu based temporary laminate structure used stabilizing the handle wafer - SOI wafer bond, and tooling optimization of the die-die bonder setup in TRL.(cont.,) Next, nominal feasibility of the 3-D flow was demonstrated by fabricating a 21-stage and 43-stage CMOS ring oscillators, where each single CMOS inverter / buffer stage was constructed by connecting NMOS-only devices from one substrate with PMOS-only devices from a separate substrate. Proof-of-concept was accomplished when all 92 Cu-Cu bonds, 204 thru-SOI Cu damascene vias, and 56 pairs of MOSFETs communicated simultaneously to produce a 2.75 MHz (43-stage) and 5.5 MHz (21-stage) oscillators, ringing rail-to-rail at 5 V Vdd under proper Vt adjustments on the SOI-PMOS using integrated backgates. Furthermore, to combat the perceived heat dissipation problem in 3-D, this work focused on using the Cu-Cu interlayer bond as heat dissipators, with Cu planes working as flux spreaders and Cu vias as direct heat conduits. Finally, 3-D RF passive integration onto existing chips can be made feasible, under certain device performance trade-offs, by using cobalt magnetic shielding, which offers at least a -10 dB throughout 0-20 GHz, with a max isolation of -24 dB at 13 GHz, at +4 dBm reference input power.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.Includes bibliographical references (p. 216-219).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.