Development of techniques for quantum-enhanced laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Physics.
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A detailed theoretical and experimental study of techniques necessary for quantum-enhanced laser- interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors was carried out. The basic theory of GWs and laser-interferometric GW detectors, quantum noise in GW detectors, the theory of squeezed states including generation, degradation, detection, and control of squeezed states using sub-threshold optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) and homodyne detectors, experimental characterization of these techniques (using periodically poled KTiOPO4 in an OPO at 1064 nm for the first time), key requirements for quantum-enhanced GW detectors, and the propagation of a squeezed state in a complex interferometer and its interaction with the interferometer field were studied. Finally, the experimental demonstration of quantum-enhancement in a prototype GW detector was performed. By injecting a squeezed vacuum field of 9.3 dB (inferred) or 7.4 ± 0.1 dB (measured) at frequencies above 3 kHz and a cutoff frequency for squeezing at 700 Hz into the antisymmetric port of the prototype GW detector in a signal-recycled Michelson interferometer configuration, the shot noise floor of the detector was reduced broadband from 7.0 x 10-7 m/viH- to 5.0 x 10-17 m/V/H while the strength of a simulated GW signal was retained, resulting in a 40% increase in signal-to-noise ratio or detector sensitivity, which is equivalent to a factor of 1.43 = 2.7 increase in GW detection rate for isotropically distributed GW sources that are confined to the frequency band in which squeezing was effective. This is the first implementation of quantum-enhancement in a prototype GW detector with suspended optics and readout and control schemes similar to those used in LIGO and Advanced LIGO. It is, therefore, a critical step toward implementation of quantum-enhancement in long baseline GW detectors.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Physics, 2007.Includes bibliographical references (p. 213-225).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Physics.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology