Nonlinear viscoelastic materials : bioinspired applications and new characterization measures
Author(s)Ewoldt, Randy H. (Randy Harold)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering.
Gareth H. McKinley and Anette E. Hosoi.
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Viscoelastic materials, such as biomaterials and non-Newtonian fluids, typically experience mechanical loading which evokes a nonlinear rheological response. Rheologically complex materials can provide novel functionality in biological and engineered systems. However, it is found that standard characterization techniques are insufficient to appropriately describe nonlinear viscoelasticity. The goal of this thesis is to transcend the limitations of current characterization methods as well as demonstrate applications of nonlinear viscoelastic materials, including reversible adhesion and snail-like wall climbing. PART ONE of this thesis introduces a complete language and framework (or ontology) for characterizing nonlinear viscoelasticity using large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) deformation. The LAOS protocol spans the 2D parameter space of deformation amplitude and frequency, known as a Pipkin space. Physically meaningful material measures are proposed, corresponding to clearly defined language such as strain-stiffening/softening and shear-thickening/thinning. The new ontology is general enough to be applied to any viscoelastic material, mapping behaviors from purely elastic to purely viscous, and any complex response in-between. The framework has been packaged into a distributable data analysis program (MITlaos) to widen its use in both academic and industrial settings. PART TWO examines the nonlinear rheological response of various soft materials and constitutive models.(cont.) The new framework is illustrated by examining prototypical nonlinear constitutive models (Giesekus, pseudoplastic Carreau, and elastoplastic Bingham). Various soft materials are tested experimentally, including pedal mucus gel from terrestrial gastropods, a wormlike micelle solution, ultrasoft hagfish slime, and an oilfield drilling fluid. PART THREE describes the use of nonlinear rheological behavior to enable unique functionality, specifically for bioinspired snail-like wall climbing and tunable adhesion using magnetorheological fluids. Yield stress fluids are examined here to enable the bioinspired adhesive locomotion of a self-contained mechanical device (Robosnail, developed by Brian Chan, Ph.D. '09). Field-responsive magnetorheological fluids are analyzed in the context of providing fast-switching reversible adhesion for use with adhesive locomotion devices and shape-changing soft robots. In conclusion, interest in soft materials is increasing across many disciplines. The contributions presented here provide the means to a better understanding of biological and engineered systems which involve complex viscoelastic materials.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2009.This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.Vita.Includes bibliographical references (p. 297-313).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology