Polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for medical imaging
Author(s)Chen, Suelin, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering.
Ralph Weissleder and Angela Belcher.
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One of the most versatile and safe materials used in medicine are polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. This dissertation describes several formulations for in vivo imaging applications. The paramagnetic polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticle aminoSPARK is used as a fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT) imaging agent for stratification of prostate cancer tumors. This is achieved by conjugating it to a peptide that targets SPARC (secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine), a biomarker protein associated with aggressive forms of prostate cancer. Several types of polymer coatings for iron oxide nanoparticles have been systematically explored using a novel high-throughput screening technique to optimize coating chemistries and synthetic conditions to produce nanoparticles with maximum stability and ability to lower T2 contrast for MR imaging (R2, or relaxivity). Carboxymethyl dextran emerged from the screen as an ideal coating for superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. A commercially available, FDA-approved nanoparticle with similar surface chemistry, Feraheme, was chosen as a platform nanoparticle for further development. This work presents the first instance of chemical modification of Feraheme, making it more amenable to bioconjugation by converting its free carboxyl groups to free amine groups. This amine-functionalized Feraheme nanoparticle (amino-FH) is then used as a base nanoparticle to which various targeting and reporting functionalities can be added. A FH-based nanoparticle that can be used for cell loading is synthesized by covalently combining Feraheme with protamine, a pharmaceutical that also acts as a membrane translocating agent. A rhodamine-protamine conjugate is synthesized and then covalently bound to amino-FH using carbodiimide (CDI) chemistry. This results in a magnetofluorescent cell-labeling nanoparticle (ProRho-FH) that is readily taken up by mouse mesenchymal stem cells and U87 glioma cells. ProRho-FH can be used to non-invasively track cells for development and monitoring of cell-based therapies or for further investigation of biological mechanisms such as cell migration, tumor growth, and metastasis. This combination of two FDA-approved, commercially available materials to yield a superparamagnetic and fluorescent cell labeling nanoparticle is an excellent alternative to the recently discontinued Feridex. All polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles used in this dissertation were thoroughly characterized to fully understand their physicochemical and magnetic properties.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, 2010.This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.Cataloged from student submitted PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (p. 144-157).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Materials Science and Engineering.