Advances in non-heme diiron modeling chemistry : developing functional protein mimics through ligand design and understanding dioxygen activation
Author(s)Do, Loi Hung
Developing functional protein mimics through ligand design and understanding dioxygen activation
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Chemistry.
Stephen J. Lippard.
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Chapter 1 A comprehensive review of diiron modeling in the Lippard group over the past thirty years is presented. This account describes the different strategies employed to prepare biomimetic complexes of non-heme diiron protein active sites, highlighting the accomplishments of the past as well as the challenges for the future. Studies of various model systems have led to a more profound understanding of the fundamental properties of carboxylate-bridged diiron units and their reactivity toward molecular oxygen and organic substrates. The key principles and lessons that have emerged from these studies have been an inspiration for the original work presented in this thesis. Chapter 2 A series of phenoxylpyridyl and phenoxylimine ligands, H2LR,R' (compounds derived from bis(phenoxylpyridyl)diethynylbenzene, where R = H, Me, or t-Bu, and R' = H, or Ph) and H2BIPSMe,Ph (bis((phenylphenoxyl)iminephenyl)sulfone) were synthesized as platforms for non-heme diiron(II) protein (III) core and molecular oxygen as the source of the bridging oxo group. The [LMe,Ph]2- ligand is robust toward oxidative decomposition and does not display any reversible redox activity. Chapter 3 A dinucleating macrocycle, H2PIM, containing phenoxylimine metal-binding units has been prepared. Reaction of H2PIM with [Fe2(Mes)4] (Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) and sterically hindered carboxylic acids, Ph3CCO2H or ArTolCO2H (2,6-bis(p-tolyl)benzoic acid), afforded complexes [Fe2(PIM)(Ph3CCO2)2] (1) and [Fe2(PIM)(ArTolCO2)2] (2), respectively. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that these diiron(II) complexes closely mimic the active site structures of the hydroxylase components of bacterial multi-component monooxygenases (BMMs), particularly the syn disposition of the nitrogen donor atoms and the bridging [mu]--n1n2 and [mu]-n1n1 modes of the carboxylate ligands at the diiron(II) centers. Cyclic voltammograms of 1 and 2 displayed quasi-reversible redox couples at +16 and +108 mV vs. ferrocene/ferrocenium, respectively, assigned to metal-centered oxidations. Treatment of 2 with silver perchlorate afforded a silver(I)/diiron(III) heterotrimetallic complex, [Fe2([mu]-OH)2(CIO4)2(PIM)(ArTolCO2)Ag] (3), which was structurally and spectroscopically characterized. Complexes 1 and 2 both react rapidly with dioxygen. Oxygenation of 1 afforded a ([mu]-hydroxo)diiron(III) complex [Fe2([mu]- OH)(PIM)(Ph3CCO2)3] (4), a hexa([mu]-hydroxo)tetrairon(III) complex [Fe4([mu]- OH)6(PIM)2(Ph3CCO2)2] (5), and an unidentified iron(III) species. Oxygenation of 2 exclusively formed di(carboxylato)diiron(III) products. X-ray crystallographic and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic investigations indicated that 2 reacts with dioxygen to give a mixture of ([mu]- oxo)diiron(III) [Fe2([mu]-O)(PIM)(ArTolCO2)2] (6) and di([mu]-hydroxo)diiron(III) [Fe2([mu]- OH)2(PIM)(ArTolCO2)2] (7) complexes in the same crystal lattice. Compounds 6 and 7 spontaneously convert to a tetrairon(III) complex, [Fe4([mu]-OH)6(PIM)2(ArTolCO2)2] (8), when treated with excess H2O. The possible biological implications of these findings are discussed. Chapter 4 To investigate how protons may be involved in the dioxygen activation pathway of non-heme diiron enzymes, the reaction of H+ with a synthetic ([mu]-1,2-peroxo)(carboxylato)diiron(III) complex was explored. Addition of an H+ donor to [Fe2(O2)(N-EtHPTB)(PhCO2)]2+ (1.O2, where N-EtHPTB = anion of N,N,N' ,N' -tetrakis(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)-2-hydroxy-1,3-diaminopropane) resulted in protonation of the carboxylate rather than the peroxo ligand. Mössbauer and resonance Raman spectroscopic measurements indicate that the Fe2(O2) core of the protonated complex [1.O2]H+ is identical to that of 1.O2. In contrast, the benzoate ligand of [1.O2]H+ displays significantly different IR and NMR spectral features relative to those of the starting complex. The [1.O2]H+ species can be converted back to 1.O2 upon treatment with base, indicating that protonation of the carboxylate is reversible. These findings suggest that in the reaction cycle of soluble methane monooxygenases and related diiron proteins, protons may 6 induce a carboxylate shift to enable substrate access to the diiron core and/or increase the electrophilicity of the oxygenated complex. Chapter 5 To explore additional methods to interrogate the properties of diiron protein intermediates, studies of the vibrational profiles of ([mu]-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) species were pursued using nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS). Comparison of the NRVS of [Fe2(O2)(NEtHPTB)(PhCO2)]2+ (1.O2) to that of the diiron(II) starting material [Fe2(N-EtHPTB)(PhCO2)]2+ (1) revealed that the oxygenated complex displays new frequencies above 350 cm-1, which are attributed to the Fe-O-O-Fe core vibrations based on 18O2/16O2 isotopic labeling studies. The peak at 338 cm-1 has not been previously observed by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Empirical normal mode analysis provides a qualitative description of these isotopic sensitive modes. The NRVS of [Fe2([mu]-O2)(HB(iPrpz)3)2(PhCH2CO2)2] (4.O2, where HB(iPrpz)3 = tris(3,5-diisopropylpyrazoyl) hydroborate) was also measured and shows several Fe2(O2) modes between 350-500 cm-1. Appendix A Attempts to prepare a diiron(IV) complex described in the literature led to several unexpected discoveries. Reaction of tris((3,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy)pyridyl-2-methyl)amine (R3TPA) with iron(III) perchlorate decahydrate and sodium hydroxide afforded a ([mu]-oxo)([mu]-hydroxo)diiron(III) [Fe2([mu]-O)([mu]-OH)(R3TPA)2](ClO4)3 complex (1), rather than [Fe2([mu]-O)(OH)(H2O)-(R3TPA)2](ClO4)3 (B) as previously reported. The putative diiron(III) starting material B is formed only at low temperature when excess water is present. Compound 1 hydrolyzes acetonitrile to acetate under ambient conditions. The acetate-bridged diiron compound, [Fe2([mu]- O)([mu]-CH3CO2)(R3TPA)2](ClO4)3 (4A), was characterized by X-ray crystallography as well as various spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. The identity of the acetate bridged complex was confirmed by comparing the structural and spectroscopic characteristics of 4A to those of an independently prepared sample of [Fe2([mu]-O)([mu]-CH3CO2)(R3TPA)2](ClO4)3.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemistry, 2011.This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.Vita. Cataloged from student submitted PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Chemistry.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology