Light pulse atom interferometry at short interrogation times for inertial navigation
Author(s)Butts, David LaGrange
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
Richard Stoner, Shaoul Ezekiel and Wolfgang Ketterle.
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Light pulse atom interferometry with cold atoms is a promising inertial sensing technology for high accuracy navigation. At present, laboratory atom interferometers match or surpass state of the art mechanical and optical inertial sensors in terms of sensitivity and long term stability. Conventional laboratory systems, however, do not achieve sufficient bandwidth or dynamic range to operate in a dynamic environment; furthermore, the size, weight and power of laboratory sensors are unsuitable for many applications. In this thesis, atom interferometry is realized at shorter interrogation times (<15 ms as opposed to >100 ms), in which the required sensitivity, bandwidth and dynamic range of navigation systems becomes feasible. A cold atom gravimeter testbed using atom interferometry with stimulated Raman transitions was developed, which executed the entire measurement cycle in a compact vacuum cell (~ ~ 80 cc). The system demonstrated an inferred sensitivity of 2 [mu]g[square root] Hz for an interrogation time of 2T = 10 ms (based on measured phase SNR, scale factor, and repetition rate). With realistic improvements to the apparatus, it could achieve a sensitivity of <1 [mu]g[square root]Hz, advancing toward the realization of a compact, atom-based inertial measurement unit with unprecedented performance. In addition, a method for increasing the momentum splitting of Raman pulse interferometers with sequential Raman pulses was demonstrated, and interferometer area was increased by up to a factor of nine without altering the interrogation time (corresponding to a momentum splitting of 18hk, the largest reported for Raman pulse interferometry). Composite Raman pulses were implemented to improve population transfer efficiency, which limits the achievable increase in precision. Finally, the effect of coherent population trapping (CPT) induced by Raman pulse atom optics was identified as a source of systematic phase shifts in the [pi]/2 - [pi] - [pi]/2 interferometer used for sensing acceleration and rotation. CPT effects were modeled in a three-level (A) atom, and were experimentally characterized using atom interferometry. Based on the magnitude of measured coherences induced by Raman pulse atom optics, phase shifts of several milliradians should occur for a typical GHz-scale laser detuning. A method for suppressing this bias in realistic operation by Raman beam propagation direction reversal is proposed.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, February 2012."February 2012." Cataloged from PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (p. 141-150).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Aeronautics and Astronautics.