MEMS-based thermal management of high heat flux devices edifice: Embedded droplet impingement for integrated cooling of electronics
Author(s)Amon, Cristina H.
Increases in microprocessor power dissipation coupled with reductions in feature sizes due to manufacturing process improvements have resulted in continuously increasing heat fluxes. The ever increasing chip-level heat flux has necessitated the development of thermal management devices based on spray and evaporative cooling. This lecture presents a comprehensive review of liquid and evaporative cooling research applied to thermal management of electronics. It also outlines the challenges to practical implementation and future research needs. This presentation also describes the development of EDIFICE: Embedded Droplet Impingement For Integrated Cooling of Electronics. The EDIFICE project seeks to develop an integrated droplet impingement cooling device for removing chip heat fluxes over 100 W/cm2, employing latent heat of vaporization of dielectric fluids. Micro-manufacturing and MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) will be discussed as enabling technologies for innovative cooling schemes recently proposed. Micro-spray nozzles are fabricated to produce 50-100 micron droplets coupled with surface texturing on the backside of the chip to promote droplet spreading and evaporation. A novel feature to enable adaptive on-demand cooling is MEMS sensing (on-chip temperature, remote IR temperature and ultrasonic dielectric film thickness) and MEMS actuation. EDIFICE is integrated within the electronics package and fabricated using advanced micro-manufacturing technologies (e.g., Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) and CMOS CMU-MEMS). The development of EDIFICE involves modeling, CFD simulations, and physical experimentation on test beds. This lecture will then examine jet impingement cooling of EDIFICE with a dielectric coolant and the influence of fluid properties, micro spray characteristics, and surface evaporation. The development of micro nozzles, micro-structured surface texturing, and system integration of the evaporator will also be discussed.