CryptDB: Protecting confidentiality with encrypted query processing
Author(s)Popa, Raluca Ada; Redfield, Catherine M.; Zeldovich, Nickolai; Balakrishnan, Hari
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Online applications are vulnerable to theft of sensitive information because adversaries can exploit software bugs to gain access to private data, and because curious or malicious administrators may capture and leak data. CryptDB is a system that provides practical and provable confidentiality in the face of these attacks for applications backed by SQL databases. It works by executing SQL queries over encrypted data using a collection of efficient SQL-aware encryption schemes. CryptDB can also chain encryption keys to user passwords, so that a data item can be decrypted only by using the password of one of the users with access to that data. As a result, a database administrator never gets access to decrypted data, and even if all servers are compromised, an adversary cannot decrypt the data of any user who is not logged in. An analysis of a trace of 126 million SQL queries from a production MySQL server shows that CryptDB can support operations over encrypted data for 99.5% of the 128,840 columns seen in the trace. Our evaluation shows that CryptDB has low overhead, reducing throughput by 14.5% for phpBB, a web forum application, and by 26% for queries from TPC-C, compared to unmodified MySQL. Chaining encryption keys to user passwords requires 11--13 unique schema annotations to secure more than 20 sensitive fields and 2--7 lines of source code changes for three multi-user web applications.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Proceedings of the 23rd ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP '11)
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Popa, Raluca Ada et al. “CryptDB: Protecting confidentiality with encrypted query processing.” ACM Press, 2011. 85.
Author's final manuscript