## Informative sensing : theory and applications

##### Author(s)

Chang, Hyun Sung
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##### Other Contributors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

##### Advisor

William T. Freeman.

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Compressed sensing is a recent theory for the sampling and reconstruction of sparse signals. Sparse signals only occupy a tiny fraction of the entire signal space and thus have a small amount of information, relative to their dimension. The theory tells us that the information can be captured faithfully with few random measurement samples, even far below the Nyquist rate. Despite the successful story, we question how the theory would change if we had a more precise prior than the simple sparsity model. Hence, we consider the settings where the prior is encoded as a probability density. In a Bayesian perspective, we see the signal recovery as an inference, in which we estimate the unmeasured dimensions of the signal given the incomplete measurements. We claim that good sensors should somehow be designed to minimize the uncertainty of the inference. In this thesis, we primarily use Shannon's entropy to measure the uncertainty and in effect pursue the InfoMax principle, rather than the restricted isometry property, in optimizing the sensors. By approximate analysis on sparse signals, we found random projections, typical in the compressed sensing literature, to be InfoMax optimal if the sparse coefficients are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.). If not, however, we could find a different set of projections which, in signal reconstruction, consistently outperformed random or other types of measurements. In particular, if the coefficients are groupwise i.i.d., groupwise random projections with nonuniform sampling rate per group prove asymptotically Info- Max optimal. Such a groupwise i.i.d. pattern roughly appears in natural images when the wavelet basis is partitioned into groups according to the scale. Consequently, we applied the groupwise random projections to the sensing of natural images. We also considered designing an optimal color filter array for single-chip cameras. In this case, the feasible set of projections is highly restricted because multiplexing across pixels is not allowed. Nevertheless, our principle still applies. By minimizing the uncertainty of the unmeasured colors given the measured ones, we could find new color filter arrays which showed better demosaicking performance in comparison with Bayer or other existing color filter arrays.

##### Description

Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2012. Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (p. 145-156).

##### Date issued

2012##### Department

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science##### Publisher

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

##### Keywords

Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.