Degradable polymeric nano-films and particles as delivery platforms for vaccines and immunotherapeutics
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
Darrell J. Irvine.
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Degradable polymeric materials provide opportunities for the development of improved vaccines and immunotherapies by acting as platforms that facilitate the delivery of molecules to appropriate tissue and cellular locations to achieve therapeutic outcomes. To this end, we have designed and characterized nano-films and particles employing a hydrolytically degradable polymer for the delivery of vaccine antigens and immunotherapeutics. We first describe protein- and oligonucleotide-loaded layer-by-layer (LbL)-assembled multilayer thin films constructed based on electrostatic interactions between a cationic poly(p-amino ester) (PBAE, denoted Poly-1) with a model protein antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), and/or immunostimulatory CpG oligonucleotides for transcutaneous delivery. Linear growth of nanoscale Poly-1/OVA bilayers was observed. Dried OVA protein-loaded films rapidly deconstructed when rehydrated in saline solutions, releasing OVA as non-aggregated/non-degraded protein, suggesting that the structure of biomolecules integrated into these multilayer films are preserved during release. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy and an in vivo murine ear skin model, we demonstrated delivery of OVA from LbL films into barrier-disrupted skin, uptake of the protein by skin-resident antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cells), and transport of the antigen to the skin-draining lymph nodes. Dual incorporation of OVA and CpG oligonucleotides into the nanolayers of LbL films enabled dual release of the antigen and adjuvant with distinct kinetics for each component; OVA was rapidly released while CpG was released in a relatively sustained manner. Applied as skin patches, these films delivered OVA and CpG to Langerhans Cells in the skin. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of LbL films applied for the delivery of biomolecules into skin. This approach provides a new route for storage of vaccines and other immunotherapeutics in a solid-state thin film for subsequent delivery into the immunologically-rich milieu of the skin. In parallel, we also developed biodegradable core-shell nanoparticles with a PBAE core enveloped by a phospholipid bilayer shell for cytosolic delivery, with a view towards delivery of messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines. The pH-responsive PBAE component was chosen to promote endosome disruption, while the lipid surface layer was selected to minimize toxicity of the polycation core. mRNA was efficiently adsorbed via electrostatic interactions onto the surface of these net positively charged nanoparticles. In vitro, mRNA-loaded particle uptake by dendritic cells led to mRNA delivery into the cytosol with low cytotoxicity, followed by translation of the encoded protein in these difficult-to-transfect cells at a frequency of -30%. Particles also promoted cytosolic uptake of co-delivered anti-tumor toxins in tumor cells resulting in synergistic killing, demonstrating potential for cancer therapy. In vivo, particles loaded with mRNA administered intranasally or intratracheally in mice led to the enhanced expression of the reporter protein luciferase compared to naked mRNA. This system may thus be promising for noninvasive delivery of mRNA-based vaccines.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, 2012.Cataloged from PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (p. 111-131).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Materials Science and Engineering.