Thermodynamic properties and atomic structure of Ca-based liquid alloys
Author(s)Poizeau, Sophie (Sophie Marie Claire)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
Donald R. Sadoway.
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To identify the most promising positive electrodes for Ca-based liquid metal batteries, the thermodynamic properties of diverse Ca-based liquid alloys were investigated. The thermodynamic properties of Ca-Sb alloys were determined by emf measurements. It was found that Sb as positive electrode would provide the highest voltage for Ca-based liquid metal batteries (1 V). The price of such a battery would be competitive for the grid-scale energy storage market. The impact of Pb, a natural impurity of Sb, was predicted successfully and confirmed via electrochemical measurements. It was shown that the impact on the open circuit voltage would be minor. Indeed, the interaction between Ca and Sb was demonstrated to be much stronger than between Ca and Pb using thermodynamic modeling, which explains why the partial thermodynamic properties of Ca would not vary much with the addition of Pb to Sb. However, the usage of the positive electrode would be reduced, which would limit the interest of a Pb-Sb positive electrode. Throughout this work, the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM) was used for the first time for alloys with thermodynamic properties showing strong negative deviation from ideality. This model showed that systems such as Ca-Sb have strong short-range order: Ca is most stable when its first nearest neighbors are Sb. This is consistent with what the more traditional thermodynamic model, the regular association model, would predict. The advantages of the MIVM are the absence of assumption regarding the composition of an associate, and the reduced number of fitting parameters (2 instead of 5). Based on the parameters derived from the thermodynamic modeling using the MIVM, a new potential of mixing for liquid alloys was defined to compare the strength of interaction in different Ca-based alloys. Comparing this trend with the strength of interaction in the solid state of these systems (assessed by the energy of formation of the intermetallics), the systems with the most stable intermetallics were found to have the strongest interaction in the liquid state. Eventually, a new criteria was formulated to select electrode materials for liquid metal batteries. Systems with the most stable intermetallics, which can be evaluated by the enthalpy of formation of these systems, will yield the highest voltage when assembled as positive and negative electrodes in a liquid metal battery.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, 2013.Cataloged from PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (p. 159-164).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Materials Science and Engineering.