Ge-on-Si laser for silicon photonics
Author(s)Camacho-Aguilera, Rodolfo Ernesto
Germanium on Silicon laser for silicon photonics
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
Lionel C. Kimerling
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Ge-on-Si devices are explored for photonic integration. Importance of Ge in photonics has grown and through techniques developed in our group we demonstrated low density of dislocations (<1x109cm-2) and point defects Ge growth for photonic devices. The focus of this document will be exclusively on Ge light emitters. Ge is an indirect band gap material that has shown the ability to act like a pseudo direct band gap material. Through the use of tensile strain and heavy doping, Ge exhibits properties thought exclusive of direct band gap materials. Dependence on temperature suggests strong interaction between indirect bands, [Delta] and L, and the direct band gap at [Gamma]. The behavior is justified through increase in photoluminescence on Ge. The range of efficient emission is to 120° with the first band interaction, and above 400° on the second band interaction. Low defect concentration in Ge is achieved through chemical vapor deposition at high vacuum (~1x10-8 mbar) in a two-step process. The high temperature growth and low concentration of particles permits epitaxial growth with low defect concentration. Chemical selectivity forbids Ge growth on oxide. Oxide trenches permit the growth on Si for a variety of shapes, without detrimentally affecting the strain of the Ge devices. Dopant concentration above intrinsic growth concentration, ~1x1019cm-3 phosphorus, have been achieved through a series of methods non-CMOS, spin-on dopant; and CMOS, implantation and delta doping. All the techniques explored use enhanced dopant diffusion observed in Ge under heavy n-type doping. A dopant source, or well, is used to distribute the dopants in the Ge without increasing the defect concentration. The approach lead to the development of electrically injected devices, LEDs and LDs. Ge pnn double heterostructure diodes were made under low, ~1x1018cm-3, and heavy n-type doping, >1x1019cm-3. Both devices showed improved performance compared to pin Ge LED. Furthermore, heavy doped Ge diodes exhibit evidence of bleaching or transparency. The techniques described permitted the development of Ge-on-Si laser with a concentration ~1-2x1019cm-3. It is the first demonstration of a Ge laser optically pumped working under the direct band gap assumption like other semiconductors. It represents the evidence of carrier inversion on an indirect band gap semiconductor. With 50cm-1 gain, the material shows Fabry-Perot cavity behavior. Finally, we demonstrated a fully functioning laser diode monolithically integrated on Si. Ge pnn lasers were made exhibiting a gain >1000cm-1 and exhibiting a spectrum range of over 200nm, making Ge the ideal candidate for Si photonics.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, 2013.This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.Cataloged from student-submitted PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (p. 253-263).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Materials Science and Engineering.