Impurity asymmetries in the pedestal region of the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak
Author(s)Churchill, Randy Michael
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering.
Bruce Lipschultz and Ian Hutchinson.
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In an effort to illuminate the effects of the strong plasma gradients in the pedestal region on impurity transport, research was conducted to measure complete sets of impurity density, poloidal and parallel velocity, and temperature at two separate poloidal locations in the pedestal region of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. To this end, the diagnostic technique gas puff-CXRS was refined and expanded on, allowing for the first time in a tokamak complete measurements of impurities at the high-field side (HFS). Large in-out B5+ impurity density asymmetries were measured in H-mode plasmas with strong boundary electron density gradients, with a build-up of impurity density at the HFS. Impurity temperatures were also found to be asymmetric in the pedestal region, with larger temperatures at the low-field side (LFS). Such temperature asymmetries suggest a significant asymmetry in electron density near the separatrix. In contrast to these H-mode results, plasmas with low boundary electron density gradients, such as L-mode and I-mode, exhibit constant impurity density on a flux surface, even if strong electron temperature gradients are present. Mechanisms which could drive such poloidal asymmetries are explored. Experiments provide evidence against localized impurity sources and fluctuation-induced transport as primary causes. Particle transport timescales are compared, showing that the radial transport becomes comparable to or faster than the parallel transport in the pedestal region. Additionally, modelling of impurity transport using conventional, one-dimensional neoclassical physics fails to correctly reproduce the measured flux-surface averaged impurity density, suggesting along with the timescale estimates that a more complete two-dimensional treatment of impurity particle transport is required. The measured impurity velocities at the LFS and HFS are compared to the canonical form for particle flow velocity within the flux surface of a tokamak. Within the error bars of the measurement, agreement is found with the canonical form. The implications of exact matches to the canonical form are low radial transport, and the E x B drift dominating the perpendicular impurity flow. Further work is motivated into more precise velocity measurements to determine if the velocities exactly match this canonical form.
Thesis: Ph. D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2014.Cataloged from PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (pages 209-216).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Nuclear Science and Engineering.