Late transition metal catalyzed C-N and C-C bond forming reactions
Author(s)Wolfe, John P. (John Perry), 1970-
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Chemistry.
Stephen L. Buchwald.
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New methods for the palladium-catalyzed amination of aryl halides are described. Key to these is the development of new catalysts and reaction conditions for these transformations. Initially, P(o-tol)3 ligated palladium catalysts were investigated but gave way to systems that used chelating phosphine ligands which substantially expanded the scope of the catalytic amination methodology. Palladium catalyst systems based on BINAP ((2,2'-diphenylphosphino)-1, 1 '-binaphthyl) allowed for the transformation of a much wider range of amines and aryl halide substrates, as well as aryl triflates. Of practical significance was that the use of cesium carbonate as a base at 100 °C substantially increased the functional group tolerance of the method. Palladium catalysts supported by novel, bulky, electron-rich phosphine ligands are exceptionally effective in the C-N, C-0, and C-C coupling procedures. For some substrate combinations, these palladium catalysts are effective for the room-temperature catalytic amination of aryl chlorides. These palladium catalysts are also highly effective for Suzuki coupling reactions of aryl bromides and chlorides at room temperature. Suzuki coupling reactions of aryl bromides and aryl chlorides are effective at very low catalyst loadings (0.000001-0.005 mol % Pd for ArBr, 0.02-0.05 mol % for ArCI) at 100 °C, and reactions of hindered aryl halides or boronic acids are effected at moderate catalyst loadings (1 mol % Pd). The high reactivity of these catalysts towards aryl chlorides challenges the conventional dogma that chloride substrates cannot be transformed under mild conditions with palladium catalysts, and significantly expands the pool of substrates available for cross-coupling chemistry.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemistry, 1999.Includes bibliographical references.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry
Massachusetts Institute of Technology