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Fabrication of extremely smooth blazed diffraction gratings

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dc.contributor.advisor Mark L. Schattenburg and George Barbastathis. en_US Chang, Chih-Hao, 1980- en_US
dc.contributor.other Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. en_US 2005-09-06T21:31:02Z 2005-09-06T21:31:02Z 2004 en_US 2004 en_US
dc.description Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2004. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (p. 103-106). en_US
dc.description.abstract High efficiency diffraction gratings are important in a variety of applications, such as optical telecommunications, lithography, and spectroscopy. Special interest has been placed on blazed diffraction gratings for their ability to enhance diffraction intensity at the specular reflection angle off the blazed facets. In this thesis I will report a novel process for fabricating extremely smooth blazed diffraction gratings with 200 nm-period. The blazed grating is fabricated using interference lithography and anisotropic etching, then replicated using nanoimprint lithography. This process was developed for fabricating the off-plane blazed diffraction gratings for the NASA Constellation-X x-ray space telescope. In order for x-rays to reflect effectively through grazing incidence reflection, the gratings will be coated with high atomic number materials, such as gold. Deposition of thin metal film often develops residual stress that adds out-of-plane distortion. In this thesis the out-of-plane distortions due to thin metal films are analyzed using wavefront aberration functions known as the Zernike polynomials. The thin film stress is proved to be linearly related to the change of the Z₂₁ Zernike coefficient. The anisotropic material properties of silicon are taken into account in the derivation, and a prediction of lattice dependent distortion is proposed. en_US
dc.description.statementofresponsibility by Chih-Hao Chang. en_US
dc.format.extent 106 p. en_US
dc.format.extent 5008064 bytes
dc.format.extent 5020500 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher Massachusetts Institute of Technology en_US
dc.rights M.I.T. theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. See provided URL for inquiries about permission. en_US
dc.subject Mechanical Engineering. en_US
dc.title Fabrication of extremely smooth blazed diffraction gratings en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US S.M. en_US
dc.contributor.department Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. en_US
dc.identifier.oclc 56801656 en_US

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