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Carbon dioxide flash-freezing applied to ice cream production

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dc.contributor.advisor John G. Brisson, II. en_US
dc.contributor.author Peters, Teresa Baker, 1981- en_US
dc.contributor.other Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2007-01-10T16:58:37Z
dc.date.available 2007-01-10T16:58:37Z
dc.date.copyright 2006 en_US
dc.date.issued 2006 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/35663
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (p. 62-64). en_US
dc.description Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2006. en_US
dc.description.abstract (cont.) Carbon dioxide is recompressed from 1.97 x 106 Pa (285 psi) to 3.96 x 106 Pa (575 psi). The process is scaled by increasing the number of nozzles to accommodate the desired flow rate. Only 165 nozzles are required to flash freeze the ice cream mix at a 2000 L/hr ice cream production rate. The power consumption of a continuous cycle implementation is modeled including single or double stage carbon dioxide recovery and compression, pre-cooling of the carbon dioxide by a standard condensing unit, pumping of the ice cream mix at high pressure and extrusion of the ice cream powder by a piston or screw extruder. The power consumption of an implementation recovering 95% of the carbon dioxide is approximately 37.3% of the power consumption of a conventional process. The cost of the make-up carbon dioxide is $0.002 per liter of ice cream. A cart implementation is also possible. en_US
dc.description.abstract Ice cream mix and other liquids are frozen by direct contact with carbon dioxide while carbon dioxide is throttled from a liquid phase to a saturated vapor phase. The process is demonstrated with a proof-of-principle apparatus that freezes discrete batches of mix. The fluid consumption, power consumption and space requirement of a continuous cycle implementation are modeled. In the proof-of-principle apparatus and the continuous cycle model, the ice cream mix is sprayed into the liquid carbon dioxide using 1.0 GPH Delavan fuel nozzles; the combined fluid is throttled by 2.0 GPH Delavan fuel nozzles, forming a fine mist during flash-freezing. The pressure at the outlet of the throttle determines the temperature of the saturated carbon dioxide vapor after the flashing process. The resulting product is a frozen carbonated ice cream powder. Depending on the implementation, 50-99% of the carbon dioxide flow is vented and can be compressed and recycled with additional make-up carbon dioxide flow. The required ratio of carbon dioxide to ice cream mix is found by balancing the change in enthalpy of each liquid from the inlet to the outlet state. For ice cream mix frozen from 5°C to -200C, the ratio is shown to be about 1.1. en_US
dc.description.statementofresponsibility by Teresa Susan Baker. en_US
dc.format.extent 66 p. en_US
dc.format.extent 4761111 bytes
dc.format.extent 4758429 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher Massachusetts Institute of Technology en_US
dc.rights M.I.T. theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. See provided URL for inquiries about permission. en_US
dc.rights.uri http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/7582
dc.subject Mechanical Engineering. en_US
dc.title Carbon dioxide flash-freezing applied to ice cream production en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.description.degree S.M. en_US
dc.contributor.department Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. en_US
dc.identifier.oclc 76767500 en_US


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