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Advanced brachytherapy dosimetric considerations

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dc.contributor.advisor Mark J. Rivard. en_US Melhus, Christopher S. (Christopher Scott), 1974- en_US
dc.contributor.other Harvard University--MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. en_US 2008-12-11T18:31:11Z 2008-12-11T18:31:11Z 2008 en_US 2008 en_US
dc.description Thesis (Ph. D.)--Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, 2008. en_US
dc.description Includes bibliographical references (p. 131-139). en_US
dc.description.abstract The practice of brachytherapy and brachytherapy dosimetry was investigated with emphasis on evaluations of dose distributions and shielding considerations for both photon- and neutron-emitting radionuclides. Monte Carlo simulation methods were employed to calculate dose distributions for virtual and commercial brachytherapy sources. Radionuclides studied were 103Pd, 1251, 131Cs, 137Cs, 169b, 192Ir, and 252Cf. 252Cf sources also emit neutrons from spontaneous fission. The brachytherapy dosimetry protocol recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine was followed and evaluated for conditions of partial scatter (non-infinite media) and material inhomogeneities, both commonly encountered in brachytherapy treatment. Furthermore, energy-dependent characteristics of dosimetry parameters were evaluated and reference calculations performed for virtual photon and neutron sources. These findings were applied to three clinical brachytherapy cases: eye plaques using 103Pd, 125I, and 131Cs; high-dose rate 252Cf treatment; and, 2 Cf plaques for superficial lesions. For eye plaques, material heterogeneities were significant for each radionuclide with dose reduction at 5 mm of 18%, 11%, and 10% for P03pd, 125I, and 131Cs, respectively. For a proposed highdose rate 252Cf source (5mm length), relative brachytherapy dosimetry parameters were found to be similar to those obtained for a low-dose rate Applicator Tube-type source (15 mm length). Considering 252Cf plaque brachytherapy when partial scatter conditions were accounted for, central axis equivalent dose rate decreased by 11 ± 1% and 7 ± 2% for depths of 4 to 50 mm, respectively. en_US
dc.description.abstract (cont.) The ratio of neutron dose to total physical dose was 70 ± 1% and 57 ± 2% for depths of 4 and 50 mm, respectively, while the fractional dose-equivalent due to neutrons was 93 + 1% and 89 ± 2% at these depths, respectively. Finally, shielding requirements for a clinical high-dose rate 252Cf source were explored for common shielding materials and a linear accelerator vault. Lead, polyethylene, and borated polyethylene were evaluated for neutron, primary photon, and secondary photon attenuation. Half-value layers of 0.70, 0.15, and 0.13 m were obtained for lead, polyethylene, and borated polyethylene, respectively. A linear accelerator vault was found to adequately shield up to a 5 mg 252Cf source for regular clinical use. en_US
dc.description.statementofresponsibility by Christopher S. Melhus. en_US
dc.format.extent 145 p. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher Massachusetts Institute of Technology en_US
dc.rights M.I.T. theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. See provided URL for inquiries about permission. en_US
dc.rights.uri en_US
dc.subject Harvard University--MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. en_US
dc.title Advanced brachytherapy dosimetric considerations en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US Ph.D. en_US
dc.contributor.department Harvard University--MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. en_US
dc.identifier.oclc 261544299 en_US

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