This is an archived course. A more recent version may be available at



The following list of readings were not required, but provided for students to continue their exploration of a particular topic on their own. The readings are organized by subject matter.


Gerevich, Jozsef, Erika Bacskai, and Tamas Kurimay. "Conditioned Heroin 'Overdose' Death in a Public Toilet." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 38, no. 11-12 (2004): 975.

Miller, Jeffrey M., Stanislav R. Vorel, Anthony J. Tranguch, Edward T. Kenny, Pietro Mazzoni, Wilfred G. van Gorp, and Herbert D. Kleber. "Anhedonia After a Selective Bilateral Lesion of the Globus Pallidus." American Journal of Psychiatry 163, no. 5 (2006): 786-788.

Nutt, David, Leslie A. King, William Saulsbury, and Colin Blakemore. "Development of a Rational Scale to Assess the Harm of Drugs of Potential Misuse." Lancet 369, (2007): 1047-53.

Spanagel, Rainer, and Markus Heilig. "Addiction and its Brain Science." Addiction 100, (2005): 1813-1822.


Amer, Ahmed, Jeff Breu, Janine McDermott, Richard J. Wurtman, and Timothy J. Maher. "5-Hydroxy-L-Tryptophan Suppresses Food Intake in Food-Deprived and Stressed Rats." Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 77, (2004): 137-143.

Boyer, Edward W., and Michael Shannon. "The Serotonin Syndrome." The New England Journal of Medicine 352, (2005): 1112-20.

Dranovsky, Alex, and René Hen. "Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Regulation by Stress and Antidepressants." Biological Psychiatry 59, (2006): 1136-1143.

Duman, Ronald S., and Lisa M. Monteggia. "A Neurotrophic Model for Stress-Related Mood Disorders." Biological Psychiatry 59, (2006): 1116-1127.

El Mansari, Mostafa, and Pierre Blier. "Mechanisms of Action of Current and Potential Pharmacotherapies of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 30, (2006): 362-373.

Gibbons, Robert D., Kwan Hur, Dulal K. Bhaumik, and J. John Mann. "The Relationship between Antidepressant Prescription Rates and Rate of Early Adolescent Suicide." American Journal of Psychiatry 163, no. 11 (2006): 1898-1904.

Gillman, P. K. "Tricyclic Antidepressant Pharmacology and Therapeutic Drug Interactions Updated." British Journal of Pharmacology 151, no. 6 (2007): 737-48.

Grady-Weliky, Tana A. "Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder." The New England Journal of Medicine 348, no. 5 (2003): 433.

Jenike, Michael A. "Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." The New England Journal of Medicine 350, no. 3 (2004): 259-65.

Kalia, Madhu. "Neurobiological Basis of Depression: An Update." Metabolism Clinical and Experimental 54, no. Suppl 1 (2005): 24-27.

Maher, Timothy J., Ismail H. Ulus, and Richard J. Wurtman. "Phentermine and Other Monoamine-Oxidase Inhibitors may Increase Plasma Serotonin when Given with Fenfluramines." The Lancet 353, no. 9146 (1999): 38.

Sánchez, Connie, and John Hyttel. "Comparison of the Effects of Antidepressants and their Metabolites on Reuptake of Biogenic Amines and on Receptor Binding." Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 19, no. 4 (1999): 467.

Sayegh, Raja, Isaac Schiff, Judith Wurtman, Paul Spiers, Janine McDermott, and Richard Wurtman. "The Effect of a Carbohydrate-Rich Beverage on Mood, Appetite, and Cognitive Function in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome." Obstetrics & Gynecology 86, no. 4 (1995): 520.

Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer L., and Ronald S. Duman. "VEGF is an Essential Mediator of the Neurogenic and Behavioral Actions of Antidepressants." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, no. 11 (2007): 4647-4652.


Aghajanian, George K., and Gerard J. Marek. "Serotonin-Glutamate Interactions: A New Target for Antipsychotic Drugs." Neuropsychopharmacology 21, no. S6 (1999): S122.

Davis, John M. "The Choice of Drugs for Schizophrenia." The New England Journal of Medicine 354, no. 5 (2006): 518.

McGlashan, T. H. "Is Active Psychosis Neurotoxic?" Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, no. 4 (2006): 609-613.


Ganzberg, Steven I., Thomas Dietrich, Manuel Valerin, and F. Michael Beck. "Zaleplon (Sonata) Oral Sedation for Outpatient Third Molar Extraction Surgery." Anesthesia Progress 52, no. 4 (2005): 128-131.

McCarthy, Margaret, M. "GABA Receptors Make Teens Resistant to Input." Nature Neuroscience 10, no. 4 (2007): 397.

Cannabinoids & Salvia

Gear, Robert W., Christine Miaskowski, Newton C. Gordon, Steven M. Paul, Phillip H. Heller, and Jon D. Levine. "Kappa-Opioids Produce Significantly Greater Analgesia in Woman than in Men." Nautre Medicine 2, no. 11 (1996): 1248.

Mackie, Ken. "Cannabinoid Receptors as Therapeutic Targets." Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 46, (2006): 101-22.

Roth, Bryan L., Karen Baner, Richard Westkaemper, Daniel Siebert, Kenner C. Rice, SeAnna Steinberg, Paul Ernsberger, and Richard B. Rothman. "Salvinorin A: A Potent Naturally Occurring Nonnitrogeneous k Opioid Selective Agonist." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99, no. 18 (2002): 11934-11939.

Tidgewell, K., W. Harding, K. Holden, C. Dersch, E. Butelman, R. Rothman, and T. Prisinzano. "Neoclerodane Diterpenes as Potential Drug Abuse Therapeutics." The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Journal (2003).

Walsh, Sharon, L., Eric C. Strain, and Mary E. Abreu. "Enadoline, a Selective Kappa Opioid Agonist: Comparison with Butorphanol and Hydromorphene in Humans." Psychopharmacology 157, (2001): 151-162.


Bredesen, Dale E., Rammohan V. Rao, and Patrick Mehlen. "Cell Death in the Nervous System." Nature Insight 443, (2006): 796.

Calabrese, Vittorio, Cesare Mancuso, Menotti Calvani, Enrico Rizzarelli, D. Allan Butterfield, and Anna Maria Giuffrida Stella. "Nitric Oxide in the Central Nervous System: Neuroprotection Versus Neurotoxicity." Nature Reviews Neurosience 8, (2007): 766.

Doble, Adam. "The Role of Excitotoxicity in Neurodegenerative Disease: Implications for Therapy." Pharmacology & Therapeutics 81, no. 3 (1999): 163-221.

Farooqui, Akhlaq A., Wei Yi Ong, Xin-Rong Lu, Barry Halliwell, and Lloyd A. Horrocks. "Neurochemical Consequences of Kainate-Induced Toxicity in Brain: Involvement Or Arachidonic Acid Release and Prevention of Toxicity by Phospholipase A2 inhibitors." Brain Research Reviews 38, (2001): 61-78.

Halliwell, Barry. "Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration: Where Are We Now?" Journal of Neurochemistry 97, (2006): 1634-1658.

Hazell, Alan S. "Excitotoxic Mechanisms in Stroke: An Update of Concepts and Treatment of Strategies." Neurochemistry International 50, (2007): 941-953.

Leist, Marcel, and Pierluigi Nicotera. "Apoptosis, Excitotoxicity, and Neuropathology." Experimental Cell Research 239, (1998): 183-201.

Mark, Leighton P., Robert W. Prost, John L. Ulmer, Michelle M. Smith, David L. Daniels, James M. Strottmann, W. Douglas Brown, and Lotfi Hacein-Bey. "Pictorial Review of Glutamate Excitotoxicity: Fundamental Concepts for Neuroimaging." American Journal of Neuroradiology 22, (2001): 1813-1824.

Rodrigo, José, Ana Patricia Fernández, David Alonso, Julia Serrano, Paula Fernández-Vizarra, Murillo Martínez Ricardo, María Luisa Bentura, and Alfredo Martinez. "Nitric Oxide in the Rat Cerebellum After Hypoxia/Ischemia." The Cerebellum 2, (2003): 194-203.

Sastry, P. S., and Kalluri Subba Rao. "Apoptosis and the Nervous System." Journal of Neurochemistry 74, no. 1 (2000): 1.


Castelli, M. Paola, Luca Ferraro, Ignazia Mocci, Francesca Carta, Mauro A. M. Carai, Tiziana Antonelli, Sergio Tanganelli, Giorgio Cignarella, and Gian Luigi Gessa. "Selective γ-hyroxybutyric Acid Receptor Ligands Increase Extracellular Glutamate in the Hippocampus, But Fail to Activate G Protein and to Produce the Sedative/Hypnotic Effect of γ-hyrdoxybutyric Acid." Journal of Neurochemistry 87, no. 3 (2003): 722-732.

de Fiebre, Christopher M., de Fiebre, Nancy Ellen C., Scott L. Coleman, and Michael J. Forster. "Comparison of the Actions of γ-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol in Swiss-Webster Mice." Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 77, no. 4 (2004): 705-710.

Lobina, Carla, Roberta Agabio, Roberta Reali, Gian Luigi Gessa, and Giancarlo Colombo. "Contribution of GABAA and GABAB Receptors to the Discriminative Stimulus Produced by Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid." Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 64, no. 2 (1999): 363-365.

Sircar, Ratna, and Ashim Basak. "Adolescent γ-hydroxybutyric Acid Exposure Decreases Cortical N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor and Impairs Spatial Learning." Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 79, no. 4 (2004): 701-708.


Balíková, Marie. "Nonfatal and Fatal DOB (2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Bromamphetamine) Overdose." Forensic Science International 153, (2005): 85-91.

Bressloff, Paul C., Jack D. Cowan, Martin Golubitsky, Peter J. Thomas, and Matthew C. Wiener. "What Geometric Visual Hallucinations Tell US about the Visual Cortex." Neural Computation 14, (2002): 473-491.

de la Torre, R., M. Farré, J. Ortuño, M. Mas, R. Brenneisen, P. N. Roset, J. Segura, and J. Camí. "Non-Linear Pharmacokinetics of MDMA (Ecstacy) in Humans." British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 49, no. 2 (2000): 104-109.

Freudenmann, Roland W., and Manfred Spitzer. "The Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology of 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-Ethyl Amphetamine (MDEA)." CNS Drug Reviews 10, no. 2 (2004): 89-116.

González-Maeso, Javier, Noelia V. Weisstaub, Mingming Zhou, Pokman Chan, Lidija Ivic, Rosalind Ang, Alena Lira, Maria Bradley-Moore, Youngchao Ge, Qiang Zhou, Stuart C. Sealfon, and Jay A. Gingrich. "Hallucinogens Recruit Specific Cortical 5-HT2A Receptor-Mediated Signaling Pathways to Affect Behavior." Neuron 53, (2007): 439-452.

Halpern, John H. "Hallucinogens and Dissociative Agents Naturally Growing in the United States." Pharmacology & Therapeutics 102, (2004): 131-138.

Halpern, John H., and Jr Pope Harrison G. "Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder: What do We Know After 50 Years?" Drug and Alcohol Dependence 69, (2003): 109-119.

Halpern, John H., and R. Andrew Sewell. "Hallucinogenic Botanicals of America: A Growing Need for Focused Drug Education and Research." Life Sciences 78, (2005): 519-526.

Halpern, John H., Andrea R. Sherwood, James I. Hudson, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd, and Jr Pope Harrison G. "Psychological and Cognitive Effects of Long-Term Peyote use among Native Americans." Biological Psychiatry 58, (2005): 624-631.

Klock, John C., Udo Boerner, and Charles E. Becker. "Coma, Hyperthermia and Bleeding Associated with Massive LSD Overdose." The Western Journal of Medicine 120, (1973): 183-188.

Kouimtsidis, Christos, Fabrizio Schifano, Tim: Ford Sharp Lisa, Robinson, Justin, and Colm Magee. "Neurological and Psychopathological Sequelae Associated with a Lifetime Intake of 40,000 Ecstasy Tablets." Psychosomatics 47, (2006): 86-87.

Lambe, E. K., and G. K. Aghajanian. "Prefrontal Cortical Network Activity: Opposite Effects of Psychedelic Hallucinogens and D1/D5 Dopamine Receptor Activation." Neuroscience 145, no. 3 (2007): 900-10.

Nichols, Charles D., and Elaine Sanders-Bush. "A Single Dose of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Influences Gene Expression Patterns within the Mammalian Brain." Neuropsychopharmacology 26, no. 5 (2002): 634.

Nichols, David E. "Hallucinogens." Pharmacology & Therapeutics 101, no. 131 (2004): 181.

Pedersen, Kasper, A. Gjedde, A. G. Olsen, S. Jakobsen, P. Cumming, and S. B. Jensen. "Binding of the Hallucinogen [11C]MeO-DMT in the Brain of Living Pigs." Neuroreceptor Mapping 2006, The Sixth International Symposium on Neuroreceptor Mapping 31, Suppl 2 (2006): T53.

Prisinzano, Thomas, E. "Psychopharmacology of the Hallucinogenic sage Salvia Divinorum." Life Sciences 78, no. 527 (2005): 531.

Spina, Edoardo, and Jose de Leon. "Metabolic Drug Interactions with Newer Antipsychotics: A Comparative Review." Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 100, (2007): 4-22.

Wilson, John M., Frank McGeorge, Susan Smolinske, and Robert Meatherall. "A Foxy Intoxication." Forensic Science International 148, (2005): 31-36.

Nicotine Rezvani, Amir H., and Edward D. Levin. "Cognitive Effects of Nicotine." Biological Psychiatry 49, (2001): 258-267.
Over-the-Counter Drugs

Eccles, Ronald S. "Substitution of Phenylephrine for Pseudoephedrine as a Nasal Decongestant. an Illogical Way to Control Methamphetamine Abuse." British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 63, no. 1 (2006): 10-14.

Sharfstein, Joshua M., Marisa North, and Janet R. Serwint. "Over the Counter but No Longer Under the Radar --- Pediatric Cough and Cold Medications." The New England Journal of Medicine 357, no. 23 (2007): 2320.

Wolfe, Timothy R., and E. Martin Caravati. "Massive Dextromethorphan Ingestion and Abuse." American Journal of Emergency Medicine 13, (1995): 174-176.

Sleep Kalsbeek, Andries, and Ruud M. Buijs. "Output Pathways of the Mammalian Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: Coding Circadian Time by Transmitter Selection and Specific Targeting." Cell & Tissue Research 309, (2002): 109-118.

Fisone, G., A. Borgkvist, and A. Usiello. "Caffeine as a Psychomotor Stimulant: Mechanism of Action." Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 61, (2004): 857-872.

Kadison, Richard. "Getting an Edge--Use of Stimulants and Antidepressants in College." The New England Journal of Medicine 353, no. 11 (2005): 1089.

Milesi-Hallé, Allesandra, Donald E. McMillan, Elizabeth M. Laurenzana, Kelly A. Byrnes-Blake, and S. Michael Owens. "Sex Differences in (+)-Amphetamine- and (+)-Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Response in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats." Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 86, (2007): 140-149.

Okie, Susan. "ADHD in Adults." The New England Journal of Medicine 354, (2006): 25.

Queen, John R., and Jonathan Glauser. "A Young Man with Hyperthermia and New-Onset Seizures." Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 69, no. 6 (2002): 453.

Strain, J. J., Bernard Donne, Margaret Fitzgerald, Albert Flynn, Phil Jakeman, Jack James, Michael Ryan, Emer Shelley, Thomas Quigley, and Geraldine Quinn. A Review of the Health Effects of Stimulant Drinks. Cork, Ireland: Food Safety Promotion Board, 2009. (PDF)#

Volkow, Nora D., and James M. Swanson. "Variables that Affect the Clinical Use and Abuse of Methylphenidate in the Treathment of ADHD." American Journal of Psychiatry 160, no. 11 (2003): 1909-1918.

Wesensten, Nancy J., William D. S. Killgore, and Thomas J. Balkin. "Performance and Alertness Effects of Caffeine, Dextroamphetamine, and Modafinil During Sleep Deprivation." Journal of Sleep Research 14, (2005): 255-266.

Woolverton, William L., David Kandel, and Charles R. Schuster. "Tolerance and Cross-Tolerance to Cocaine and d-Amphetamine." The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Treatment 205, no. 3 (1978): 525.