Integrated optical quantum manipulation and measurement of trapped ions
Author(s)Mehta, Karan K. (Karan Kartik)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.
Rajeev J. Ram.
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Individual atomic ions confined in designed electromagnetic potentials and manipulated via lasers are strong candidates as physical bases for quantum information processing (QIP). This is in large part due to their long coherence times, in distinguishability, and strong Coulomb interactions. Much work in recent years has utilized these properties to implement increasingly precise quantum operations essential for QIP, as well as to conduct increasingly sophisticated experiments on few-ion systems. Many questions remain however regarding how to implement the significant classical apparatus required to control and measure many ions (and indeed any physical qubit under study) in a scalable way that furthermore does not compromise qubit quality. This work draws on techniques in integrated optics to address this question. Planar-fabricated waveguides and gratings integrated with planar ion traps are demonstrated to allow optical addressing of individual 88Sr+ions 50 [mu]m above the chip surface with distraction-limited focused beams, with advantages in stability and scalability. Motivated by the requirement for low crosstalk in qubit addressing, we show also that intuitively designed devices can generate precisely tailored intensity profiles at the ion locations, with distraction-limited side lobe intensities characterized to the 5x10-6 level in relative intensity up to 25 [mu]m from the focus. Such devices can be implemented alongside complex systems in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. We show in addition that the multiple patternable metal layers present in CMOS processes can be used to create complex planar ion traps with performance comparable to simple single-layer traps, and that CMOS silicon avalanche photodiodes may be employed for scalable quantum state readout. Finally we show initial results on integrated electro-optic modulators for visible light. These results open possibilities for experiments with trapped ions in the short term, and indicate routes to achieving large-scale systems of thousands or more ions in the future. Though ion qubits may seem isolated from scalable solid-state technologies, it appears this apparent isolation may uniquely allow a cooperation with complex planar-fabricated optical and electronic systems without introducing additional decoherence.
Thesis: Ph. D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2017.This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.Cataloged from student-submitted PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (pages -183).
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.