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dc.contributor.advisorSiqi Zheng.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFan, Yichun,M.C.P.Massachusetts Institute of Technology.en_US
dc.contributor.otherMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Urban Studies and Planning.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-15T22:05:12Z
dc.date.available2020-09-15T22:05:12Z
dc.date.copyright2020en_US
dc.date.issued2020en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/127590
dc.descriptionThesis: M.C.P., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, May, 2020en_US
dc.descriptionCataloged from the official PDF of thesis.en_US
dc.descriptionIncludes bibliographical references (pages 81-88).en_US
dc.description.abstractThe social cost of air pollution depends on both its biophysical impacts on health and productivity and the dynamic avoidance behaviors citizens proactively adopt. The literature has almost exclusively focused on the direct impacts, and the limited research looking into the avoidance behaviors has only considered monetary defensive expenditure. Building upon a theoretical framework incorporating the broader pollution costs into existing economic models, I derive empirical evidence of the hidden opportunity cost and social cost of pollution avoidance behaviors. For opportunity cost, I focus on the foregone outdoor leisure activities and the related welfare loss due to pollution avoidance, relying on billions of cell phone location inquiries from 10,499 parks all over China. Using the pollution blown from upwind cities as the instrumental variable for local pollution, I show that heavy PM2.5 pollution reduces park visitation by 10% in northern Chinese cities.en_US
dc.description.abstractIf the number of heavily-polluted days reduces by 25% in northern China, the welfare gain from leisure activity is about 83.5 million USD. For social cost, I show that pollution awareness affects commuting behaviors, by conducting a survey for 2,258 non-vehicle commuters in Zhengzhou, China. If fully aware of exposure risk, up to 14.8% of non-vehicle travelers intend to switch to motor vehicle commuting (private car/ taxi) on polluted days, 13.9% fewer people are willing to choose active commuting even if they can receive a subsidy, and soft policies like Green Nudge completely lose effect. This avoidance behavior generates more emissions for the society and creates a "mitigation-avoidance dilemma" for transportation policies.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe thesis calls for more attention to quantifying the broader social impacts of pollution by including the non-market value of avoidance behaviors; these impacts create substantial welfare loss and social challenges awaiting more balanced policy decision-making to consider these trade-offs.en_US
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityby Yichun Fan.en_US
dc.format.extent88 pagesen_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherMassachusetts Institute of Technologyen_US
dc.rightsMIT theses may be protected by copyright. Please reuse MIT thesis content according to the MIT Libraries Permissions Policy, which is available through the URL provided.en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/7582en_US
dc.subjectUrban Studies and Planning.en_US
dc.titleAir pollution, avoidance behaviors, and neglected social costs : evidence from outdoor leisure and commuting behaviorsen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.description.degreeM.C.P.en_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Urban Studies and Planningen_US
dc.identifier.oclc1193555858en_US
dc.description.collectionM.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Studies and Planningen_US
dspace.imported2020-09-15T22:05:10Zen_US
mit.thesis.degreeMasteren_US
mit.thesis.departmentUrbStuden_US


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