Photoinitiated proton-coupled electron transfer and radical transport kinetics in class la ribonucleotide reductase
Author(s)Pizano, Arturo A. (Arturo Alejandro)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry.
Daniel G. Nocera.
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Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is a critical mechanism in biology, underpinning key processes such as radical transport, energy transduction, and enzymatic substrate activation. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) rely on PCET to mediate the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of DNA precursors. E. coli class Ia RNR consists of two dimeric subunits: [alpha]₂ contains the active site, while [beta]₂ contains a stable diferric-tyrosyl radical cofactor. During turnover, transport occurs over 35 Ȧ, from Y₁₂₂ in [beta]₂ to C₄₃₉ in [alpha]₂) where an active-site thiyl radical mediates turnover. Radical transport is proposed to occur over a series of highly conserved redox-active amino acids, including Y₃₅₆ in [beta]₂,and Y₇₃₁ and Y₇₃₀ in [alpha]₂ . This thesis examines three subject areas of PCET that pertain to RNR: Small-molecule model systems provide insights into tyrosine oxidation and radical generation. Under physiological conditions, tyrosine oxidation is accompanied by deprotonation and occurs by PCET. A critical factor in PCET reactions is the nature ofthe proton acceptor and the presence ofhydrogen bonding. In a modular model system, pyridyl-amino acid-methyl esters are appended to rhenium(I) tricarbonyl phenanthroline to yield rhenium-amino acid complexes. In dichloromethane solution, bases coordinate to tyrosine by hydrogen bonding. Emission kinetics reveal base-dependent oxidation by PCET. A photopeptide composed of the 19 C-terminal residues of [beta]₂, fluorinated tyrosine in place of Y₃₅₆, and a rhenium(I) bipyridine photooxidant enables photoinitated radical transport into [alpha]₂. Transient absorption kinetics show rapid radical transport (10⁵ s-¹) that is only observed when both Y₇₃₁ and Y₇₃₀, are present, suggesting a critical role for the Y₇₃₁-Y₇₃₀, dyad for radical transport in RNR. An intact, photochemical [beta]₂ enables studies of an [alpha]₂:[beta]₂ complex. A bromomethylpyridine rhenium(I) phenanthroline photooxidant labels a single surface-cysteine mutant of [beta]₂ at position 355 to yield [Re]- [beta]₂. Under flash-quench conditions, transient absorption reveals a tyrosine radical. [Re] -[beta]₂ binds [alpha]₂ and is capable of light-initiated substrate turnover. Transient emission quenching experiments reveal Y₃₅₆ oxidation that is dependent on the presence of Y₇₃₁ in [alpha]₂. This result suggests that a Y₃₅₆-Y₇₃₁-Y₇₃₀ triad mediates radical transport across the subunit interface and into [alpha]₂.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemistry, 2013.Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Vita.Includes bibliographical references.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology