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Technology Readiness Levels at 40: a study of state-of-the-art use, challenges, and opportunities

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dc.contributor.author Olechowski, Alison
dc.contributor.author Eppinger, Steven D.
dc.contributor.author Joglekar, Nitin
dc.date.accessioned 2015-04-01T16:21:25Z
dc.date.available 2015-04-01T16:21:25Z
dc.date.issued 2015-04-01
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/96307
dc.description.abstract The technology readiness level (TRL) scale was introduced by NASA in the 1970s as a tool for assessing the maturity of technologies during complex system development. TRL data have been used to make multi-million dollar technology management decisions in programs such as NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover. This scale is now a de facto standard used for technology assessment and oversight in many industries, from power systems to consumer electronics. Low TRLs have been associated with significantly reduced timeliness and increased costs across a portfolio of US Department of Defense programs. However, anecdotal evidence raises concerns about many of the practices related to TRLs. We study TRL implementations based on semi-structured interviews with employees from seven different organizations and examine documentation collected from industry standards and organizational guidelines related to technology development and demonstration. Our findings consist of 15 challenges observed in TRL implementations that fall into three different categories: system complexity, planning and review, and validity of assessment. We explore research opportunities for these challenges and posit that addressing these opportunities, either singly or in groups, could improve decision processes and performance outcomes in complex engineering projects. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher SSRN en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper;5127-15
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 United States *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/us/ *
dc.subject Technology assessment en_US
dc.subject Technology readiness en_US
dc.subject Engineering management en_US
dc.subject R&D management en_US
dc.subject Project management en_US
dc.subject Risk management en_US
dc.title Technology Readiness Levels at 40: a study of state-of-the-art use, challenges, and opportunities en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.identifier.citation http://ssrn.com/abstract=2588524 en_US


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