Regulation of Adenine Nucleotide Concentration at Endothelium-Fluid Interface by Viscous Shear Flow
Author(s)Shen, Jian; Gimbrone, Michael A. Jr.; Luscinskas, Francis W.; Dewey, C. Forbes Jr.
The action of adenine nucleotides on vascular endothelial cells is apparently mediated by the local flow conditions. Because nucleotides are sequentially degraded from ATP - ADP - AMP -- adenosine by ecto-enzymes at the endothelial surface, it has been hypothesized that the observed flow effect is caused by the flow-dependent change of nucleotide concentration at the cell surface. In this study, we have calculated the concentration profiles of adenine nucleotides at the cell surface under flow conditions encountered in an in vitro parallel-plate flow system, as has been used in several related experimental studies. When medium containing uniformly distributed ATP is perfused over endothelial monolayers, our results show that ATP concentration in the cell vicinity gradually decreases in the streamwise direction as a result of enzymatic degradation. This hydrolysis of ATP results in the generation of ADP, and ADP concentration in turn gradually increases at the cell surface. The concentration profiles of nucleotides are dependent on the levels of applied wall shear rate. As the corresponding shear stress increases from 0.1 to 30 dynes/cm^2, ATP concentration at the cell surface at the center of coverslip increases from 0.66 to 0.93. Under no-flow conditions, our model predicts a steady decline of ATP concentration and a transient increase of ATP-derived ADP, comparable to the published results of previous experiments. These numerical results, combined with our recent experimental data, provide insights into the cellular mechanisms by which hemodynamic flow modulates the effects of vasoactive agents on endothelium.
Biophysical Journal, 1993
Biophysical Journal, 64, 1323-1330 (1993)
adenine, viscous shear flow