This is an archived course. A more recent version may be available at


Mastering the Machine Revisited readings are from the course text: Amazon logo Smillie, Ian. Mastering the Machine Revisited: Poverty, Aid and Technology. Bourton-on-Dunsmore, UK: ITDG Publishing, 2000. ISBN: 9781853395079.

1 Introduction: Appropriate Technologies in the Developing World

Amazon logo Schumacher, E. F. "Social and Economic Problems Calling for the Development of Intermediate Technology." Part III, Chapter 2 in Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. New York: Harper Perennial, 1989, pp. 181-201. ISBN: 9780060916305.

Crosette, B. "Kofi Annan's Astonishing Facts."

2 Appropriate Technology and Intermediate Technology

Hawthorne, Peter. "Power to the People." Time Magazine, 1997.

Mastering the Machine Revisited. pp. 3-34, 86-103.


Participatory Development

Role Playing Exercise

Mastering the Machine Revisited. pp. 35-66.

Fischer, G. "Beyond Couch Potatoes: From Consumers to Designers and Active Contributors." First Monday 7, no. 12 (December 2002).


Stakeholder Analysis

Perspectives on Development

Mastering the Machine Revisited. pp. 69-85.
5 Presentations on Countries and Projects "Water for People, Water for Life." UNESCO (PDF)

Water Issues in the Developing World

Lab: Water Lab

Sobsey, M. "Managing Water in the Home: Accelerated Health Gains from Improved Water Supply." Sections 1-7. World Health Organization, 2002.
8 Project: Team Meetings D-Lab Case Study: "Wheelchairs in Zambia"
9 DISACARE Case Study

In-class Reading and Discussion: Disacare Case Study Supplement (PDF - 2.8 MB)

"Manufacturing Enterprise." ITDG.

Mastering the Machine Revisited. pp. 171-186.

10 Manufacturing in Developing Countries Warschauer, Mark. "Reconceptualizing the Digital Divide." First Monday 7, no. 7 (July 2002).
14 Marketing to the Bottom of the Pyramid

Hammond, A., and C. K. Prahald. "What Works: Serving the Poor, Profitably." World Resources Institute. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Mainsah, E., S. Heuer, A. Kalra, and Q. Zhang. "Grameen Bank: Taking Capitalism to the Poor." (PDF)

17 Agricultural Technology Showcase I Mastering the Machine Revisited. pp. 104-136.
18 Agricultural Technology Showcase II

D-Lab Case Study: "Oilseed Press"

Atkinson, H. J., J. Green, S. Cowgill, and A. Levesley. "The case for genetically modified crops with a poverty focus." Trends in Biotechnology 19, no. 3 (2001): 91-96.

Wijeratna, A. "The GM Mirage Will Not Help the Poor." The Guardian, 4 June 2003.

20 Energy Issues in Developing Countries

Distributed Power Modeling and Lifecycle Assessment (PDF)

Mastering the Machine Revisited. pp. 137-153.

21 Lab: Solar Energy and Lighting

UN Development Programme, World Energy Assessment.

Chapter 1: Energy and Major Global Issues (PDF)

Chapter 2: Energy and Social Issues (PDF)


23 Photo-voltaic System Design

Shapouri, H., et al. "The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update." USDA. (PDF)

Segelken, R. "Subsidized Food Burning." Cornell Chronicle, 23 August 2001.


Life Cycle Analysis

Lab: Charcoal Manufacture

Gordon, B., et al. "Inheriting the World: The Atlas of Children's Health and the Environment." World Health Organization, 2004.
26 Health Issues in the Developing World "Smoke: The Killer in the Kitchen." ITDG.
27 Humanitarian Bridge Building Mastering the Machine Revisited. pp. 200-213.
28 Sanitation and Latrine Technology Hafkin, N., and N. Taggart. "Supporting Women's Use of Information Technologies for Sustainable Development."
30 Gender Issues in Development Mastering the Machine Revisited. pp. 189-199.
31 ICT4D (Information and Communications Technologies for Development) Mastering the Machine Revisited. pp. 214-245.
34 Survey and Assessment Techniques Mastering the Machine Revisited. pp. 154-170.
35 The Better World Workshop Mastering the Machine Revisited. pp. 246-261.