A 1.1 nW Energy-Harvesting System with 544 pW Quiescent Power for Next-Generation Implants
Author(s)Bandyopadhyay, Saurav; Mercier, Patrick Philip; Lysaght, Andrew Christopher; Stankovic, Konstantina M.; Chandrakasan, Anantha P.
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This paper presents a nW power management unit (PMU) for an autonomous wireless sensor that sustains itself by harvesting energy from the endocochlear potential (EP), the 70-100 mV electrochemical bio-potential inside the mammalian ear. Due to the anatomical constraints inside the inner ear, the total extractable power from the EP is limited close to 1.1-6.25 nW. A nW boost converter is used to increase the input voltage (30-55 mV) to a higher voltage (0.8-1.1 V) usable by CMOS circuits in the sensor. A pW charge pump circuit is used to minimize the leakage in the boost converter. Furthermore, ultralow-power control circuits consisting of digital implementations of input impedance adjustment circuits and zero current switching circuits along with Timer and Reference circuits keep the quiescent power of the PMU down to 544 pW. The designed boost converter achieves a peak power conversion efficiency of 56%. The PMU can sustain itself, and a duty-cyled ultralow-power load while extracting power from the EP of a live guinea pig. The PMU circuits have been implemented on a 0.18- μm CMOS process.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Bandyopadhyay, Saurav, Patrick P. Mercier, Andrew C. Lysaght, Konstantina M. Stankovic, and Anantha P. Chandrakasan. “A 1.1 nW Energy-Harvesting System with 544 pW Quiescent Power for Next-Generation Implants.” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 49, no. 12 (December 2014): 2812–2824.
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