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dc.contributor.authorBourouiba, Lydia
dc.contributor.authorDehandschoewercker, Eline
dc.contributor.authorBush, John W. M.
dc.date.accessioned2016-03-01T20:26:10Z
dc.date.available2016-03-01T20:26:10Z
dc.date.issued2014-03
dc.date.submitted2013-12
dc.identifier.issn0022-1120
dc.identifier.issn1469-7645
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/101386
dc.description.abstractViolent respiratory events such as coughs and sneezes play a key role in transferring respiratory diseases between infectious and susceptible individuals. We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the fluid dynamics of such violent expiratory events. Direct observation of sneezing and coughing events reveals that such flows are multiphase turbulent buoyant clouds with suspended droplets of various sizes. Our observations guide the development of an accompanying theoretical model of pathogen-bearing droplets interacting with a turbulent buoyant momentum puff. We develop in turn discrete and continuous models of droplet fallout from the cloud in order to predict the range of pathogens. According to the discrete fallout model droplets remain suspended in the cloud until their settling speed matches that of the decelerating cloud. A continuous fallout model is developed by adapting models of sedimentation from turbulent fluids. The predictions of our theoretical models are tested against data gathered from a series of analogue experiments in which a particle-laden cloud is ejected into a relatively dense ambient. Our study highlights the importance of the multiphase nature of respiratory clouds, specifically the suspension of the smallest drops by circulation within the cloud, in extending the range of respiratory pathogens.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.) (Grant DMS-1022356)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNatural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canadaen_US
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherCambridge University Pressen_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2014.88en_US
dc.rightsArticle is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use.en_US
dc.sourcefaculty submission Bush or Bourouibaen_US
dc.titleViolent expiratory events: on coughing and sneezingen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.citationBourouiba, Lydia, Eline Dehandschoewercker, and John W. M. Bush. “Violent Expiratory Events: On Coughing and Sneezing.” Journal of Fluid Mechanics 745 (March 24, 2014): 537–563. © 2014 Cambridge University Pressen_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Mathematicsen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorBourouiba, Lydiaen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorBush, John W. M.en_US
dc.relation.journalJournal of Fluid Mechanicsen_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticleen_US
eprint.statushttp://purl.org/eprint/status/PeerRevieweden_US
dspace.orderedauthorsBourouiba, Lydia; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Bush, John W. M.en_US
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7936-7256
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6025-457X
mit.licensePUBLISHER_POLICYen_US


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