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dc.contributor.authorHeimbach, Patrick
dc.contributor.authorWunsch, Carl Isaac
dc.contributor.authorPonte, Rui M.
dc.contributor.authorForget, Gael
dc.contributor.authorHill, Christopher N.
dc.contributor.authorUtke, Jean
dc.date.accessioned2016-08-17T20:00:39Z
dc.date.available2016-08-17T20:00:39Z
dc.date.issued2011-02
dc.date.submitted2010-10
dc.identifier.issn09670645
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/103949
dc.description.abstractA dual (adjoint) model is used to explore elements of the oceanic state influencing the meridional volume and heat transports (MVT and MHT) in the sub-tropical North Atlantic so as to understand their variability and to provide the elements of useful observational program design. Focus is on the effect of temperature (and salinity) perturbations. On short timescales (months), as expected, the greatest sensitivities are to local disturbances, but as the timescales extend back to a decade and longer, the region of influence expands to occupy much of the Atlantic basin and significant areas of the global ocean, although the influence of any specific point or small area tends to be quite weak. The propagation of information in the dual solution is a clear manifestation of oceanic teleconnections. It takes place through identifiable “dual” Kelvin, Rossby, and continental shelf-waves with an interpretable physics, in particular in terms of dual expressions of barotropic and baroclinic adjustment processes. Among the notable features are the relatively fast timescales of influence (albeit weak in amplitude) between 26°N and the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean, the absence of dominance of the sub-polar North Atlantic, significant connections to the Agulhas leakage region in the southeast Atlantic on timescales of 5–10 years, and the marked sensitivity propagation of Doppler-shifted Rossby waves in the Southern Ocean on timescales of a decade and beyond. Regional, as well as time-dependent, differences between MVT and MHT sensitivities highlight the lack of a simple correspondence between their variability. Some implications for observing systems for the purpose of climate science are discussed.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Oceanographic Partnership Program (U.S.) (‘‘Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean’’ (ECCO) and the ‘‘Atlantic MOC Observing System Studies Using Adjoint Models’’ projects)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.) (NSF Collaboration in Mathematics and Geoscience (CMG) project ‘‘Uncertainty Quanti- fication in Geophysical State Estimation’’)en_US
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.065en_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Licenseen_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en_US
dc.sourceProf. Wunsch via Chris Sherratten_US
dc.titleTimescales and regions of the sensitivity of Atlantic meridional volume and heat transport: Toward observing system designen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.citationHeimbach, Patrick, Carl Wunsch, Rui M. Ponte, Gael Forget, Chris Hill, and Jean Utke. “Timescales and Regions of the Sensitivity of Atlantic Meridional Volume and Heat Transport: Toward Observing System Design.” Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 58, no. 17–18 (September 2011): 1858–1879.en_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.approverWunsch, Carlen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorHeimbach, Patricken_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorWunsch, Carl Isaacen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorForget, Gaelen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorHill, Christopher N.en_US
dc.relation.journalDeep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanographyen_US
dc.eprint.versionAuthor's final manuscripten_US
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticleen_US
eprint.statushttp://purl.org/eprint/status/PeerRevieweden_US
dspace.embargo.termsNen_US
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6808-3664
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3925-6161
mit.licensePUBLISHER_CCen_US


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