On the cost of electrodialysis for the desalination of high salinity feeds
Author(s)Zubair, Syed M.; Lienhard, John H.; McGovern, Ronan Killian; Weiner, Adam Michael; Sun, Lige; Chambers, Chester; ... Show more Show less
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We propose the use of electrodialysis to desalinate produced waters from shale formations in order to facilitate water reuse in subsequent hydraulic fracturing processes. We focus on establishing the energy and equipment size required for the desalination of feed waters containing total dissolved solids of up to 192,000 ppm, and we do this by experimentally replicating the performance of a 10-stage electrodialysis system. We find that energy requirements are similar to current vapour compression desalination processes for feedwaters ranging between roughly 40,000-90,000 ppm TDS, but we project water costs to potentially be lower. We also find that the cost per unit salt removed is significantly lower when removed from a high salinity stream as opposed to a low salinity stream, pointing towards the potential of ED to operate as a partial desalination process for high salinity waters. We then develop a numerical model for the system, validate it against experimental results and use this model to minimise salt removal costs by optimising the stack voltage. We find that the higher the salinity of the water from which salt is removed the smaller should be the ratio of the electrical current to its limiting value. We conclude, on the basis of energy and equipment costs, that electrodialysis processes are potentially feasible for the desalination of high salinity waters but require further investigation of robustness to fouling under field conditions.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemical Engineering; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Mechanical Engineering
McGovern, Ronan K., Adam M. Weiner, Lige Sun, Chester G. Chambers, Syed M. Zubair, and John H. Lienhard V. “On the Cost of Electrodialysis for the Desalination of High Salinity Feeds.” Applied Energy 136 (December 2014): 649–661.
Author's final manuscript