Calcium-induced tetramerization and zinc chelation shield human calprotectin from degradation by host and bacterial extracellular proteases
Author(s)Stephan, Jules Rabie; Nolan, Elizabeth Marie
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Calprotectin (CP, S100A8/S100A9 oligomer, MRP-8/14 oligomer, calgranulins A and B) is a protein component of the innate immune system that contributes to the metal-withholding response by sequestering bioavailable transition metal ions at sites of infection. Human CP employs Ca(II) ions to modulate its quaternary structure, transition metal binding properties, and antimicrobial activity. In this work, we report the discovery that Ca(II)-induced self-association of human CP to afford heterotetramers protects the protein scaffold from degradation by host serine proteases. We present the design and characterization of two new human CP-Ser variants, S100A8(C42S)(I60E)/S100A9(C3S) and S100A8(C42S)(I60K)/S100A9(C3S), that exhibit defective tetramerization properties. Analytical size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation reveal that both variants, hereafter I60E and I60K, persist as heterodimers in the presence of Ca(II) only, and form heterotetramers in the presence of Mn(II) only and both Ca(II) and Mn(II). Coordination to Fe(II) also causes I60E and I60K to form heterotetramers in both the absence and presence of Ca(II). The Ca(II)-bound I60E and I60K heterodimers are readily degraded by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and human neutrophil elastase, whereas the Ca(II)-bound CP-Ser heterotetramers and the Ca(II)- and Mn(II)-bound I60E and I60K heterotetramers are resistant to degradation by these host proteases. The staphylococcal extracellular protease GluC cuts the S100A8 subunit of CP-Ser at the C-terminal end of residue 89 to afford a ΔSHKE variant. The GluC cleavage site is in close proximity to the His3Asp metal-binding site, which coordinates Zn(II) with high affinity, and Zn(II) chelation protects the S100A8 subunit from GluC cleavage. Taken together, these results provide new insight into how Ca(II) ions and transition metals modulate the chemistry and biology of CP, and indicate that coordination to divalent cations transforms human CP into a protease-resistant form and enables innate immune function in the hostile conditions of an infection site.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry
Royal Society of Chemistry, The
Stephan, Jules R., and Elizabeth M. Nolan. “Calcium-Induced Tetramerization and Zinc Chelation Shield Human Calprotectin from Degradation by Host and Bacterial Extracellular Proteases.” Chem. Sci. 7.3 (2016): 1962–1975. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry
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