Past, Present, and Future Drug Delivery Systems for Antiretrovirals
Author(s)Kirtane, Ameya; Langer, Robert S; Traverso, Giovanni
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The human immunodeficiency virus has infected millions of people and the epidemic continues to grow rapidly in some parts of the world. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has provided improved treatment and prolonged the life expectancy of patients. Moreover, there is growing interest in using ARVs to protect against new infections. Hence, ARVs have emerged as our primary strategy in combating the virus. Unfortunately, several challenges limit the optimal performance of these drugs. First, ARVs often require life-long use and complex dosing regimens. This results in low patient adherence and periods of lapsed treatment manifesting in drug resistance. This has prompted the development of alternate dosage forms such as vaginal rings and long-acting injectables that stand to improve patient adherence. Another problem central to therapeutic failure is the inadequate penetration of drugs into infected tissues. This can lead to incomplete treatment, development of resistance, and viral rebound. Several strategies have been developed to improve drug penetration into these drug-free sanctuaries. These include encapsulation of drugs in nanoparticles, use of pharmacokinetic enhancers, and cell-based drug delivery platforms. In this review, we discuss issues surrounding ARV therapy and their impact on drug efficacy. We also describe various drug delivery–based approaches developed to overcome these issues.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Institute for Medical Engineering & Science; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemical Engineering; Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kirtane, Ameya R. et al. “Past, Present, and Future Drug Delivery Systems for Antiretrovirals.” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 105, 12 (December 2016): 3471–3482 © 2016 American Pharmacists Association
Author's final manuscript