Where Should Saliency Models Look Next?
Author(s)Borji, Ali; Bylinskii, Zoya; Recasens Continente, Adria; Oliva, Aude; Torralba, Antonio; Durand, Frederic; ... Show more Show less
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Recently, large breakthroughs have been observed in saliency modeling. The top scores on saliency benchmarks have become dominated by neural network models of saliency, and some evaluation scores have begun to saturate. Large jumps in performance relative to previous models can be found across datasets, image types, and evaluation metrics. Have saliency models begun to converge on human performance? In this paper, we re-examine the current state-of-the-art using a fine-grained analysis on image types, individual images, and image regions. Using experiments to gather annotations for high-density regions of human eye fixations on images in two established saliency datasets, MIT300 and CAT2000, we quantify up to 60% of the remaining errors of saliency models. We argue that to continue to approach human-level performance, saliency models will need to discover higher-level concepts in images: text, objects of gaze and action, locations of motion, and expected locations of people in images. Moreover, they will need to reason about the relative importance of image regions, such as focusing on the most important person in the room or the most informative sign on the road. More accurately tracking performance will require finer-grained evaluations and metrics. Pushing performance further will require higher-level image understanding. Keywords: Saliency maps, Saliency estimation, Eye movements, Deep learning, Image understanding
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Europrean Conference on Computer Vision – ECCV 2016
Bylinskii, Zoya, et al. “Where Should Saliency Models Look Next?” Computer Vision – ECCV 2016, edited by Bastian Leibe et al., vol. 9909, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 809–24.
Author's final manuscript